|San Francisco |
|Location of United States|
From top, clockwise: Houses Painted Ladies in the neighborhood Alamo Square ; Rainbow Flag in the neighborhood Castro , Golden Gate Bridge , Lombard Street , and streetcar in one of the city streets.
California's location in the U.S.
|Founded in||June 29 of 1776 ( 236 years )|
|Built-in||April 15 of 1850 ( 162 years ) |
|Mayor||Gavin Newsom ( D )|
|Gentile||San Franciscan ( San Franciscan )|
|County||County of San Francisco (co-existing with the city of San Francisco)|
|Type of locality||City|
|Time zone||-8 / -7|
|Area||600.59 km ²|
|- Earth||121.39 km ²|
|- Water||479.20 km ²|
|- Metropolis||9 128.2 km ²|
|Population (2010  )||805 235 hab. (6 633.30 inhabitants / km ²)|
|- Metropolis||4,335,391 |
San Francisco (in English : San Francisco ), officially the City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city in the state of California and the 13th most populous of the United States , with a population of 805,235 inhabitants, according to the national census of 2010  . It is the only consolidated city-county in California  , which covers a land area of 121 km ²  , at the northern end of the San Francisco Peninsula , giving it a population density of 6 633.30 people / km ². It is the most densely populated city in California and the second large city (population greater than 200,000 ) most densely populated of the United States  . San Francisco is thefinancial center , cultural and transportation center of the Bay Area of San Francisco , a region with more than 7.4 million people  .
In 1776 , the Spanish established a fort at the Golden Gate and a mission named for Francis of Assisi on the site . The Gold Rush in California in 1848 , propelled the city into a period of rapid growth, increasing the population in one year was 1000 to 25,000 inhabitants  , and thus transforming it into the largest city West Coast of the United States at the time. After three-quarters of the city were destroyed by earthquake and fire of 1906  , San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, getting the Panama-Pacific Exposition nine years later. During World War II , San Francisco was the port of embarkation for the Pacific War  . After the war, the return of the military, immigration en masse, liberalizing attitudes, and other factors led to the Summer of Love and the movement for gay rights , consolidated San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States.
Today, San Francisco is a popular international tourist destination  , known for its cool summer fog, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of Victorian architecture and modern and its famous landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge , the cable cars and Chinatown . The city is also a center of financial and banking sector, being home to more than 30 international financial institutions  , helping San Francisco to become the eighteenth richest city in the world and ninth in the Unidos.O people native Ohlone lived in what is now San Francisco long before the arrival of the first Europeans . Fog and mist , climatic aspects common in the region, made the strait that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean , the Golden Gate Strait , was not found by early European explorers exploring the region. In 1542 , the Portuguese Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo , exploring on behalf of the court Spanish , sailed close to the area but did not see the entrance to the bay. In 1595 , Portuguese Sebastián Rodríguez Cermeno also exploring on behalf of the Spanish court, explored the Drake Bay, located sixty miles north of the Golden Gate Strait. Cermeno named the region of Puerto de San Francisco . It was only in 1769 that a group of Spanish explorers led by Gaspar de Portolá , exploring the California shore, they saw for the first time within the San Francisco Bay. Colonization Spanish
The Spaniards completely mapped the bay around 1775 . A Spanish expedition led by Captain Juan Bautista de Anza , delimited on March 28 of 1776 the land for the construction of a fort (now the Presidio of San Francisco ), built by a detachment led by José Joaquín Moraga later that same year 1776.Simultaneously, the Hispanic mission of the Franciscan Order , Mission San Francisco de Assis , popularly known as Mission Dolores , was established near the fort, founding a church (now the Mission Dolores , also dated 1776, located on Dolores Street in the neighborhood Mission , south of Street Market ). This church was named Misión San Francisco de Asis . The name became popularly refer to Dolores because of a creek that was near the village called Arroyo de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores (in Portuguese : Stream of Our Lady of Sorrows ). A monk , a member of the Anza Expedition, Friar Font, wrote about the site chosen for the Misión describes the location and everything remains exactly as in the present and mentions the Arroyo de los Dolores adding that they settled on the banks of the creek, planting corn and beans to try the soil  .
The September 17 of the same year, the prison was opened. In this region began to develop in the small Spanish village missionary, the Misión Dolores del Pueblo . The plan to develop the Spanish California was simple and "three steps". Would the Franciscans (the Misión) forward to catechize the natives in (1) Church (so named Misión ); establish their village around the Misión and where would work in their plantations, (2) pueblo - in Portuguese : " the village " , and finally, the Spanish build a fort with the labor of newly indoctrinated; dalí arose (3) Presidio. Soon, the Franciscans were in charge of helping with the Christianization costanoanos, discipline and hygiene and work with the garden , the planting of their livelihood; soldiers and nobles took advantage to delegate the responsibilities of the heavy lifting in the hands of newly educated natives with the construction of the prison. These natives were not accustomed to work and nor do the heavy work, and could not get interested in the lifestyle of the Spaniards, who were nobles; then fled frightened. For this reason, the strong, established a prison to keep inmates workers to flee. There was a lot of death and with it, little by little, the work of the Franciscan Mission became more difficult.
In all, six missions were founded by the Misión San Francisco de Assis . The Franciscans began in Southern California and were going up north (San Francisco being the last) --- always with the same plan. Although Hispanics dropped detachments first job was all that difficult. The Spaniards were gentlemen and would not be chasing fugitives. The detachments left the Franciscans, who followed in sequence, but in California, their misións became towns and American cities are today. These include the first up, almost on the border with Mexico , San Diego de Alcalá (now San Diego ); enthusiastically, they went on an expedition bolder, and further north, founding the second, San Carlos Borromeo de Carmel , which today is called only Carmel . San Francisco de Assis was the sixth mission to settle. There are some 21 missions in California, but many were founded by other Orders, or even by a single monk, regardless.
Spanish settlers who came along with Bautista de Anza settled in the same region near the Misión San Francisco de Asis , in the village called Pueblo of San Francis of Assisi (later, the village of San Francisco), the founder of the Franciscan Order. Today, the neighborhood Mission and almost all still populated by Chicanos .
[ EDIT ]GEOGRAPHY
[ edit ]Geographical
San Francisco is located in the northern region of the state of California , along the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay .It is surrounded by water on three sides. Just south of town is connected with the mainland , which makes the site where the city is located a peninsula , the peninsula of San Francisco .The city of San Francisco has about 13 km long and 12 km wide.
San Francisco is located near the San Andreas Fault , the source of activity earthquake in California. The city was hit by powerful earthquakes in 1851 , 1858 , 1865 , 1868 , 1906 , 1957 and 1989 , and the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 and the most serious known. The threat of an earthquake similar to what happened in 1906 directly affects the development of the city: any structures like skyscrapers must be built following certain criteria, and many economic resources are spent for older structures that follow these criteria.
The land where St. Francis is located is very bumpy .Currently, the city is famous for its mountains and hills, and the streets that run on them.
The city has a total area of 600.7 km ², of which 120.9 km ² is land and 479.7 km ² (79%) is covered by water.Within the city limits of San Francisco are many islands , such as Farallon Islands in the Pacific Ocean, the island of Yerba Buena , within the San Francisco Bay and famous Alcatraz Island , at the entrance of the bay, where the prison was located in the same name, currently one of the main tourist attractions of the city.
[ edit ]Climate
Surrounded on three sides by water , the climate of San Francisco is very much influenced by the cool currents of the Pacific Ocean . The time the city is mild year round, characterized by a climate temperate Mediterranean ( Csb ), with summers and relatively warm winters relatively cold.The temperature in winter average is 10 ° C , rarely dropping below zero, and the average summer temperature is 15 ° C. The lowest temperature ever recorded in San Francisco was -4 ° C in December 1972 , and the highest was 41 ° C, in July 1988 . The precipitation overall annual average city is 500.4 mm , falling in most of the year as rain , and rarely in the form of snow semi-molten. Very possibly, it snows in the city. It rains very little in the summer, but the winters are usually very rainy.
The combination of heat from the ground and the cold Californian Pacific Ocean cause constant mist and fog in the summers of San Francisco. This makes the summers of the city are significantly colder than in the countryside. In September, however, the occurrence of fog and mist in the city is more rare. At this time a week ago of the hottest of the year, known as the Indian Summer (Indian Summer).
[ EDIT ]POLITICS
San Francisco is both a city and county in California, and is the only one of the 58 counties of the state that has this distinction. The city is governed by a mayor , who runs the executive system of the city and a municipal council ( Board of Supervisors ), consisting up of 11 members, each being elected by the population of each of the 11 electoral districts of the city . The mayor and the City Council together form the legislative system of the city. Both the mayor and council members are elected by the people to serve four years in duration.
About 70% of the city budget comes from local taxes, the rest comes from grants provided by the state government of California. It is estimated the fiscal budget of the city between June 2005 and June 2006 , around 2.44 billion / billion dollars.
[ EDIT ]ECONOMY
San Francisco is one of the main financial centers of the United States.The city has a stock market of regional importance. Many commercial and financial companies have their headquarters in San Francisco.
The tourism plays a key role in the city.The city attracts millions of tourists every year, interested in its parks, its various tourist attractions and its climate, mild year round. The city is also a tourist destination among tourists much quoted homosexuals , who are attracted by the air of cordiality city population of homosexuals.
The metropolitan area of San Francisco - San Jose is the capital of the national high-tech industry.South of San Jose is located in Silicon Valley , so named because in the region are located numerous companies and factories producing chips for computers , of which silicon is an essential raw material. The city of San Francisco itself also has many high-tech factories, which manufacture computer parts and software . San Francisco is also an important financial center, and is considered the financial capital of Northern California .
Other important industries in the city are the textile, food, metals and derivatives.
[ edit ]Tourism
San Francisco is a city cosmopolitan , known for its cable cars and the Golden Gate Bridge . The region of the bay has many museums , restaurants and shopping centers and famous historic sites. For those who prefer outdoor activities, the National Recreation Area Golden Gate and the beaches of Santa Cruz is a great destination.
San Francisco is located on a peninsula of 120 km ² , and is one of the best ports in the world closed, and four islands: Alcatraz , Angel , Yerba , Buena and Treasure . The history of the city is a blend of Spanish colonialism and American Romanticism. The city is built on a chain of mountains , so many streets have a beautiful view of the bay.
One of the main attractions of San Francisco is its centenary tram network with 17 km long, flowing at 15 km / h and whose history can be seen in the Tram Museum of San Francisco.Another interesting museum is the Museum of Art of Drawing. You can also visit the Golden Gate Bridge and Golden Gate Park, with lakes and gardens that serve as the backdrop for concerts, as well as accommodate the California Academy of Science, the Natural History Museum, Morrison Planetarium and Steinhart Aquarium. Other attractions that are worth visiting are: Pier Fishermen; Alcatraz , a former maximum security prison that is now a national park, Chinatown , central China , Ocean Beach and Seal Rocks.
The cultural heritage of San Francisco is very rich, and the main focus, among other places, is the Center for the Arts (in Yerba Buena Gardens) with many festivals of dance , theater , music , film and artistic montages. The Modern Art Museum of San Francisco and the American Conservatory Theatre. For visitors who prefer peace and tranquility there are Roller Coasters, which is named in memory of Russian sailors who were buried there, and it is the place of refuge for writers like Jack London and Mark Twain .
North Bay is Vallejo , the first capital of California , also a center of interest to history buffs, nature lovers and sportsmen. At the East Bay is Berkeley , home of the famous cultural UC Berkeley , and attractions such as the Museum of Art at UC Berkeley, the Pacific Film Archive and the Zellerbach Hall. It has a lot of bookstores, cafes and nightclubs, for students and tourists.
Going southward is Oakland , where many activities are concentrated from the Bay Area and has miles of sea with a panoramic backdrop that makes a lovely city. Further south is St. Joseph , famous for wonderful climate throughout the year and some unique attractions, including the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, the House of Mystery of Winchester and the innovative The Tech Museum.
[ EDIT ]INFRASTRUCTURE
[ edit ]Education
The system of schools public of San Francisco is administered by the San Francisco Board of Education (Board of Education of San Francisco). The Council is composed of seven members who are elected by the population of the city to serve four years in duration. This municipal organization administers the San Francisco Unified School District (Unified School District San Francisco), a school district that manages approximately 120 public schools, and who is responsible for the education of approximately 60,000 students per year. San Francisco manages a system of libraries public libraries composed of 25 across the city.
San Francisco is a major educational hub. The largest university in the city is the University of San Francisco . Nine other higher education institutions are located in the city.
[ edit ]Transportation
[ edit ]Public transport
San Francisco has one of the best and most extensive systems of public transport on the west coast of the United States. The San Francisco Municipal Railway is the municipal agency responsible for managing the mesh trolleys , trams traction (which are one of the main tourist attractions of the city) and buses . The system is integrated, considering only the lines of trams and buses. Trams traction is another tourist attraction of the city than an efficient means of transport, and they are not integrated with the rest of the system.
The Bay Area Rapid Transit ( BART ) operates a line subway which connects San Francisco with other neighboring cities. For those who want to get around the subway to a bus is required to pay a "transfer" Pour 0.25 cents to power their way to a conventional bus.
[ edit ]Public Roads
San Francisco is one of the few major U.S. cities that opted to use a system of arterial streets as the main component of the public roads of the city, rather than an extensive system of highways . Few expressways exist in the city today.
San Francisco connects with the city of Oakland , north through the San Francisco-Oakland Bridge . It was inaugurated in 1936 . Similarly, connects the city with Marin County , located northeast, just across the Golden Gate Bridge . This was inaugurated in 1937 , a year after the inauguration of the bridge from Oakland to San Francisco.
[ edit ]Airports
The main airport serving San Francisco, San Francisco International Airport is located 12.9 km south of San Francisco, in San Mateo County , in an area previously occupied by a landfill . It is one of two major centers of the California airport, the other being Los Angeles International Airport , located in Los Angeles .The San Francisco International Airport is a major hub of United Airlines . During the late 1990's , the San Francisco International Airport has become the sixth busiest commercial airport in the world, but with the economic depression of the years 2000 and 2001 , fell out of the top 10 busiest in 2003 . The BART connects the airport with the city, as well as an expressway .