|State of the United States|
|Nickname (s) : The Evergreen State |
Motto (s) : Al-ki or Alki
(Do chinook jargon : Bye Bye)
|Governor||Jay Inslee ( D )|
|Official Language||No. The English is de facto|
|Electoral college||11 votes|
|Senators||Patty Murray ( D ) Maria Cantwell ( D)|
|Area||184 660.82  km ² (18th largest)|
|- Earth||172 118.99 km ²|
|- Water||12 541.83 km ² (6.79%)|
|Population ( 2010 )|
|- Population||7330540  (12th most populous)|
|- Density||39.07 inhabitants / km ² (25 º denser)|
|- Date||November 11 of 1889|
|- Order||42 º|
|Time zone||Pacific : UTC -8/-7|
|Latitude||45 ° 32 'N - 49 ° N|
|Longitude||116 ° 57 '- 124 ° 48' W|
|Length N - S||385 km|
|Length E - The||580 km|
|- Average altitude||520 m|
|- Highest point||4392 m|
|- Point lower||0 m|
|- ISO 3166-2||US-WA|
Washington is one of 50 states of the United States , located in the so called states of the Pacific . The state was named after the leader of U.S. forces in the American Revolution of 1776 and the first U.S. president , George Washington . The names of many cities and counties in the United States honoring several American Presidents, but the state of Washington is the only state to be named after an American president. The state should not be confused with the U.S. capital, Washington, District of Columbia . Therefore, in the country, Washington state, is often called the state of Washington , while Washington, the national capital, is called DC ( abbreviation of the District of Columbia).
Washington has huge forests , whose trees not defoliate in the fall or winter. These forests give the state the nickname of Evergreen State . In Portuguese , Evergreen means evergreen . Its large forests make Washington a leader of American timber industry. Washington is cut by several rivers and covered by several lakes , creating a breeding ground for the installation of dams. The country's largest, the Grand Coulee Dam , located in the state, the Columbia River . The economy of Washington, however, is centered primarily on manufacturing (primarily aerospace and computer), the financial sector and in tourism . The largest manufacturer of aircraft in the world, Boeing , is headquartered in Washington, and many of its factories are located in the state.
Washington was first explored by the Spanish . Later, the British would install itself in the region where the state of Washinton is currently located. The area was originally part of a region called the Oregon Country - a disputed territory between the Americans and the British in the decades between 1810 and 1840 . In 1846 , the Treaty of Oregon requires that all lands south of the 49th parallel of Oregon Contry would be controlled by the United States - with the exception of Vancouver Island . By 1859 , Washington was part of the Oregon Territory , created from the American side of Oregon Contry in 1848 .In 1859, Washington Territory was created and named after George Washington . On November 11th of 1889 , Washington became the 42nd U.S. state.
[ edit ]
Several tribes Native Americans were already established in the region, thousands of years before the arrival of the first Europeans . Most of these tribes was part of two distinct indigenous groups: the salishianos and penutianos . The first lived primarily in northern and coastal Washington, while penutianos lived primarily inside, along the west and south of the state.
The first Europeans to explore Washington were the Spaniards , after the 1750s . The Spanish intensively explored the coast of the modern State, and Washington claimed the Spanish crown.But not established any permanent settlement. Such explorations were made under fear of an expanding Russian , who then controlled the Alaska , southward. The British George Vancouver was the first European to map the coast of the present State of Washington, over the year of 1792 . However, the British, at least initially, also not interested in founding any permanent settlements in the region, although they claimed the region to the British crown.
The American Robert Gray , along with his expedition, composed of hunters and traders, became the first American to explore the interior of Washington, taking advantage of Boston , Massachusetts , at the behest of a private company. They landed on the coast of Washington in 1792. The United States then went to claim the region. Traders and British and American hunters hunted and traded in the region of the current state of Washington. The Hudson's Bay Company founded the first permanent settlement in the region, the present city of Vancouver .
The American expansion westward resulted in increasing numbers of American settlers settling in the region from the 1840s . The United States started to claim that all land located south of parallel 54 º 40 'N and west of the Rockies .Already the British demanded that the border would be the parallel 49 º N, and this boundary would proceed southward, following the course of the Columbia River , west of the Rockies - in this case, much of the west of the current state of Washington would be under control UK. In 1846 , the United States and Britain reached an agreement demarcating the border between the United States and the British colonies in the region along the 49th parallel.
In 1848 , under pressure from American settlers installed in the northwestern United States, the U.S. government created the Oregon Territory , and implemented a government in the region. This territory incorporating all the current states of Oregon , Idaho and Washington. During the 1850s, Seattle was founded. In 1859 , Oregon was elevated to the state. The Oregon Territory became the Territory of Washington. Subsequently, the government of the territory of Washington began pressuring indigenous natives of the region to settle in reserves, and thus free land to white settlers. The salishianos accepted, but not penutianos, which went to war with the white settlers in the region in 1855 . The war between the American colonists and the Indians lasted until 1858 , when penutianos were defeated and forced to move to Indian reservations.
From the beginning of the 1860s , increasing numbers of settlers began to settle in the Territory of Washington, thanks to the discovery of large mines gold in the region. The population growth of the area led to the secession of areas west of Washington, for the formation of the Territory of Idaho. The territorial limits of Washington since then, most have not changed. The strong population growth in Washington persisted in the 1870s and 1880 . Seattle became a major port city . In 1883 , the Northern Pacific Railway was opened, connecting Washington to the east. On November 11th of 1889 , the territory was elevated to the category of state. Washington became the 42nd state of the United States.
[ edit ]1889 - current times
The economy of Washington in its first decades as a state, depended primarily on agriculture and mining. Throughout the 1890s , Americans used modern irrigation techniques now allow the practice of agriculture in the desert region of eastern Washington. There the cattle was replaced by crops wheat . Other sources of income were important to the timber industry, fishing and food processing.
At the beginning of the twentieth century , Washington's reputation in the country was a wild and dangerous land, as much as the rest of the American West, but with timber replacing the cowboys and the forests of the state replaced the deserts. A particular city, Aberdeen had the reputation of being the hardest city west of the Mississippi , due to gambling, violence, widespread use of drugs and prostitution .
Seattle prospered with the American population migration toward Hawaii and Alaska , and was a primary center supply in Hawaii for several decades, and is today the main supply center of Alaska. Washington's economy began to prosper greatly from the beginning of the First World War . Timber production and food has increased enormously. Seattle also became an industrialized city, one of the largest manufacturers of ships and aircraft in general throughout the war. The Boeing was founded in 1917 in Seattle. The war led to greater unity among the workers of the state, and several unions were created in Washington. After the war, in February of 1919 , the city's unions organized a general strike in Seattle. More than 60 thousand workers went on strike.
The Great Depression , which began in 1929 , ruined the state's economy. To try to minimize the problems caused by the Depression, such as poverty, unemployment and poverty, the state began construction of several buildings, among them several dams , culminating with the opening of Grand Coulee Dam in 1941 , today the largest in operation USA.
Washington's economy rebounded with the onset of World War II . The metropolitan area of Seattle, thanks to its proximity to the front of the Pacific, has become one of the largest manufacturers of military ships, and militates largest aircraft manufacturer, the country. In 1943 , the U.S. government launched a nuclear plant in the state, the Hanford Engineering Works , as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium needed for the manufacture of nuclear weapons . This plant has generated much of the nuclear fuel used in atomic bombs used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki . The state is rapidly industrialized, during and after the end of World War II, and agriculture, mining and wood industry lost much importance in the economy of the state.
During the 1960s , the U.S. government adopted a series of program designed to clean up polluted rivers and lakes polluted by industrial waste and sewage . The rise of Boeing as the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world has led to a large population growth in metropolitan Seattle. In 1962 , Seattle hosted the World's Fair in 1962. The biggest attraction of the fair was the construction and opening of the Space Needle , a tower of 184 meters high, was inaugurated a year earlier, in 1961 . Later, in 1964 , the governments of Canada and the United States initiated a joint program for the construction of several dams along the Columbia River and tributaries.
On May 18th of 1980 , the volcano Mount St. Helens erupted. Previously dormant for hundreds of centuries, the volcano literally exploded, causing total destruction in a radius of about 25 miles.57 people died, and more than four billion dollars in damage was caused. Washington's economy went into a recession that lasted for about two years. The eruption threw volcanic ash in a radius of more than 1500 km from the explosion, primarily in the first 200 miles, covering several cities in the state with a thick layer of ash several centimeters thick.
The NPP Hanford Engineering Works , launched several tons of water (used as cooler) slightly radioactive per day on the Columbia River. Moreover, failures along the structure caused the soil around the reactor stay contaminated. The reactors were closed progressively between 1964 and 1971 , and in 1989 , the U.S. government and the state began a major program of cleaning, which is scheduled for completion around 2030 .
In 1996 , Gary Locke was elected governor of the state. Locke was the first American descent Chinese to be elected governor of an American state.
[ EDIT ]GEOGRAPHY
Washington is located in the northwest of the contiguous 48 states of the United States. It is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the west, with the province Canadian from British Columbia to the north, and the U.S. states of Idaho and the eastern Oregon south. The Columbia River forms most of the border between Washington and Oregon. Washington is a state of contrasts.Much of the state is covered by forests. The region's forests Olimpia Peninsula are among the rainiest in the world. Moreover, much of the east of the state is arid, where trees are very rare to find.The altitude variation of the state is enormous, ranging from zero meters along the coast to more than four thousand meters. With nearly 185 square kilometers  , is the 18th largest U.S. state in area of the country .
The coastline of the state along the Pacific Ocean has about 255 miles long. Counting up all regions bathed by the sea - bays , estuaries and islands ocean - the total rises to 4870 km. The main river of the state is the Columbia River , whose source is located in British Columbia. The river cuts Washington from the north towards the south, turning westward in froneira state with Oregon. The Columbia River cuts through Washington for about 1100 km. Dams installed along the river produce half of all electricity generated by power plants in the country, the Grand Coulee Dam is currently the third largest dam in the world, and the largest country.
Several other rivers cross the state, rising in the Rocky Mountains and running toward the Pacific Ocean and the Columbia River. Forests cover about half of the state, most state forests are located in western Washington.
Washington may be divided into six distinct geographical regions:
- The Rockies occupy the northwestern state of Washington. It is characterized by its high altitude and its highly rugged terrain. It has several mines of gold , zinc , granite and magnesium .
- The Columbia Plateau occupies much of central Washington, as well as all the central-east and southeast of the state. It is characterized by having altitudes ranging between 150 and 600 meters, surrounded by other regions of highest altitude, and its ground relatively little bumpy. Located just south of the Rocky Mountains.
- The Cascade Mountains stretch from British Columbia to northern California and Nevada . It lies immediately west of the Rocky Mountains and the Columbia plateau. It is characterized as a region that has several volcanoes assets, including the Mount St. Helens , which killed 57 people and caused billions of dollars in damage after a massive eruption on May 18 . It has a highly rugged terrain, and several peaks over three thousand meters. The highest point in the state, Mount Ranier , has about 4392 meters of altitude.
- The lowlands of the Puget Sound extend east of the Cascade Mountains. Located by its rugged terrain little by its very fertile soil and the presence of large forests - about 70% of state forests are located in this region. It is the most populated region of the state.
- The Olympic mountains are located in the northwest of the state, and east and north of the Puget Sound lowlands. It is characterized by its highly rugged terrain, and the presence of mountains with thousand feet or more. It is a sparsely populated region.
- The Coastal Mountains stretch from the southern coast of the state until the central coast of Oregon . Most of this area is covered by forests. It is characterized by its rugged terrain, mountain and its low altitude.
[ edit ]Climate
Thanks to the proximity of large bodies of water and the warm ocean currents of the Pacific Ocean, the western state of Washington has the climate milder than any Northern state of the 48 contiguous states of the United States. The state's climate is temperate , with four distinct seasons. The summers are cool and the state less hot than other state's north, while the winters are relatively mild in Washington, hotter than any other state in the north. Much of western Washington has very high rates of rainfall annual average. Already the east of the state has hot summers and cold winters, with low rates of annual precipitation.
In winter, the temperature average is 5 º C in the west and -3 ° C in the eastern state. The lowest averages are recorded in the higher altitudes of Washington, -8 ° C in regions with 1600 meters or more. Low temperatures ranging from -30 ° C to 12 ° C, maximum temperatures vary between -22 ° C and 18 ° C. The lowest temperature ever recorded in the state was recorded in the northeastern state on December 30 of 1968 , which registered a low of -44 ° C.
In summer, the average temperature is 16 ° C in the west and 23 ° C in the eastern state. The lowest averages are recorded along the coast of Washington. Low temperatures ranging from 5 ° C to 18 ° C, maximum temperatures between 14 ° C and 35 ° C. The highest temperature ever recorded in the state was recorded in the southeastern state, on August 5th of 1961 , which was recorded at a maximum of 48 ° C.
The rates of average annual precipitation of rain in Washington between 100 cm to 350 cm per year in the western state just 10 cm to 35 cm in the central-eastern state. The rates of average annual precipitation of snow ranges from 15 inches at the coast, 130 cm to 200 cm in the mountain regions and 30 cm in the central-east.
[ EDIT ]POLITICS
The current constitution came into effect in Washington in 1889 , created prior to the elevation of the category of Washington State. Amendments to the Constitution are proposed by the Legislature of Washington, and to be approved, must receive at least two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives of the State , and then at least two-thirds of the voting population of Washington, in a referendum .Amendments may also be made through constitutional conventions , political gatherings special, which must be approved by at least 51% by each House of the Legislature and then by at least 60% of the voting population of the state in a referendum.
The highest official of the executive branch of Washington's governor . The population chooses through elections the state governor for terms of up to four years duration. They can apply as many times as they want. The state governor has the power to choose from over 350 different officers.
The Legislature of Washington consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives . The Senate consists of 49 senators, while the House of Representatives is composed of 98 members.The senators' terms are four years and the terms of Representatives are two years. Both senators as representatives may apply for re-election as many times as desired.
The highest judicial court of the Judiciary Washington is the Washington Supreme Court. The nine judges of this court are elected by the people of the state for a term of up to six years in duration. Elections for positions on the Supreme Court are held every three years, with three judges elected by election. Then the highest state court is the Court of Appeals of Washington .This is up by 22 judges, elected by the people of the state for a term of up to six years in duration.No judge can apply for re-election in a given judicial court.
Washington is divided in 39 different counties. Most of these 39 counties are governed by a board consisting of 3 members. Washington has about 300 cities. Any city with more than 20,000 inhabitants are free to choose their form of municipal government.
About 60% of the revenue of the government budget is generated by Washington tax state. The rest comes from grants provided by the federal government and loans . In 2002 , the state government has spent 30.378 billion dollars and generated 23.813 billion dollars. The government debt Washington is 13.552 billion dollars. The debt per capita is $ 2,234, the amount of state taxes per capita is $ 2,082, and the value of government spending per capita is $ 5,007.
Both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party had throughout the twentieth century strong presence in Washington. Most of the population of the major cities and most populous state support Democratic candidates, while voters in rural areas and smaller cities tend to support Republican candidates.
[ EDIT ]DEMOGRAPHICS
|In 1860||11 594||865.4%|
|In 1870||23 955||106.6%|
|In 1880||75 116||213.6%|
|In 1890||357 232||375.6%|
|In 1900||518 103||45.0%|
|Source: U.S. Census   |
The census of American 2000 estimated the population of Washington in 5,894,121 inhabitants, an increase of 21% on the population of 1990 , of 4,866,692 inhabitants. An estimate made in 2005 estimated the state's population at 6,287,759 residents, an increase of 29.1% compared to the state's population in 1990 of 6.7% compared to the state's population in 2000, and 1 3% compared to the estimated population of 2004 .
The natural population growth in Washington between 2000 and 2005 was 180 160 inhabitants - 418,055 births minus 237,895 deaths - population growth caused by immigration was 134,242 inhabitants, while interstate migration resulted in a gain of 80 974 inhabitants. Between 2000 and 2005, Washington's population grew by 393,619 people, and between 2004 and 2005, 80 713 inhabitants.
About 631,500 people in Washington were born outside the United States (10.3% of the state population), of which an estimated hundred thousand (1.6% of the state population) are illegal immigrants.
About 83% of the population lives in metropolitan Washington.Most of these regions is the metropolitan area of Seattle . Seattle is the largest city in the state, with its 608 000 inhabitants. Its metropolitan area has about 3.5 million inhabitants, or about two-fifths of the state population. In total, more than 82% of the state population living in cities. Most of the state's population lives in the northwest of the state.
6.7% of the population of Washington has less than 5 years old, 25.7% are under 18 years of age, and 11.2% of the state population possesses 65 years of age or older. Females make up 50.2% of the state population.
[ edit ]Race and ethnicity
Racial composition of the population of Washington:
- 78.9% White
- 7.5% Hispanic
- 5.5% Asian
- 3.2% African-Americans
- 1.6% Native American
- 3.3% Two or more races
The five largest ethnic groups in Washington are Germans (who make up 18.7% of the state population), British (12%), Irish (11.4%), Norwegian (6.2%) and Mexico (5.6% ). The Mexicans are concentrated primarily in the southeastern and south-central, where they work in the fields as cheap labor. Many of these farm workers are illegal, however. The population of Asian descent Washington is the fifth largest in the country. The largest Asian ethnic group in the state are the Filipinos .
[ edit ]Religion
Percentage of population by religious affiliation of Washington:
- Christianity - 71%
- Other religions - 2%
- Non-religious - 27%
Like most states in the American West, the percentage of non-religious people in Washington is relatively high, much higher than elsewhere in the country. The percentage of non-religious state of Washington is the highest of any U.S. state, and the rates of religious affiliation to churches or other religious institutions is among the lowest in the country.
[ edit ]Major cities
- Walla Walla
- Port Townsend
[ EDIT ]ECONOMY
The economy is concentrated primarily in Washington and largely in the tertiary sector. The gross domestic product (GDP) of the state was 244 billion U.S. dollars in 2003 . The per capita income for the state was $ 33,332. The rate of unemployment in Washington is 6.2%. The center of economic, financial and industrial state is Seattle .
The primary sector accounts for 2% of GDP in Washington. The agriculture and livestockaccount for 1.6% of the state GDP, and employ about 140,000 people. Washington has about 39,000 farms , of which 13 000 are dependent on modern irrigation techniques for growing crops.The main products grown or raised in the state are corn , apple (the state is the largest producer), milk , cherry and beef cow . The total value of agricultural products produced by the state is $ 5.4 billion. The timber industry corresponds to 0.35% of the state GDP and employs about five thousand people. The fishing accounts for 0.05% of GDP in Washington and employs about two thousand people. The annual value of the fishery collected in the state is $ 100 million.
The secondary sector accounts for 17% of GDP in Washington. The industry manufacturing accounts for 12% of the state GDP and employs about 375,000 people. The total value of the products manufactured in the state per year is 35 billion dollars. The main industrial products are manufactured in Washington airplanes , ships , development of software , electronics, foods and paper and wood products. The Boeing , the largest builder of airplanes in the world, is headquartered in the state, in Seattle, as well as its main factories. The Microsoft , the Amazon and Nintendo of America are also based in Washington. The industry of construction accounts for 4.6% of the state GDP and employs about 212,000 people. The mining accounts for 0.4% of the state GDP and employs about five thousand people. The main products mined in the state arecoal , gold and sand .
The service sector accounts for 81% of GDP in Washington. community service and personal correspond to 24% of the state GDP, and employ over 1.1 million people. Washington is a major financial center, and Seattle is the major financial center of the state and a major West Coast.Services financial and real estate account for 18% of GDP of the state and employs about 270,000 people. The trade wholesale and retail account for 17% of the state GDP and employ more than 770,000 people. government services account for 13% of the state GDP and employ more than 553,000 people. Transport, telecommunications and utilities account for 9% of the state GDP and employ around 172 000 people. About 78% of the electricity generated in the state is produced in hydroelectric plants . No American state produces more electricity from hydropower than Washington. 13% of the electricity generated in the state is produced by power plants to coal , and 9.5% by nuclear power plants . The remaining 0.5% are generated by wind farms and solar plants .
[ EDIT ]EDUCATION
The first school of Washington was founded in 1832 in Vancouver , built for the education of the children of employees of the Hudson's Bay Company . The state instituted a public school system throughout the state in 1895 .
Currently, all educational institutions in Washington need to follow rules and standards dictated by the State Board of Education in Washington. This advice directly controls the public school system of the state, which is divided into different school districts . Each primary city ( city ), several secondary cities ( towns ) and each county is served by one school district. In cities, the responsibility to manage the schools is the local school district, while in the less densely populated, this is responsibility of school districts operating throughout the county in general.Washington allows operation of charter schools - independent public schools that are not run by school districts, but which rely on public funds to operate. School attendance is compulsory for all children and adolescents with more than eight years, until the completion of high school or until the age of eighteen.
In 1999 , public schools in the state met about 1.004 million students, employing approximately 50,400 teachers . Private schools attended approximately 76,900 students, employing approximately 5700 teachers. The public school system in the state consumed about 6.098 billion dollars, and the expense of public schools was approximately $ 6,600 per student. About 89% of the inhabitants of the state with over 25 years of age have a high school diploma.
The first library public Washington was built in 1853 , the current state capital, Olympia . The state currently has 65 public library systems, which handle an annual average of 9.6 books per capita. The first institution of higher education in Washington, the University of Washington , was inaugurated in 1861 . Currently, Washington has 78 institutions of higher education, of which 45 are public and 33 are private. Seattle stands as the largest center of education in the state.Washington does not have a public system of higher education institutions, all 45 public institutions of higher education in Washington are administered each independently from the other, by the state.
[ EDIT ]TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Thanks to its strategic location, close to Alaska, Hawaii and Asia , Seattle became a major hub airport and port American. Several flights departing the International Airport Seattle-Tacoma connecting the country with many cities in Asia, Hawaii and Alaska. The Alaska Airlines has its headquarters in Seattle International Airport. The Port of Seattle is one of the busiest West Coast.Moreover, the state administers the largest company of ferry in the world, that connects Seattle with cities in the islands delta of the Columbia River .
About 20 companies railway providing freight transportation services and passengers in the state. The Amtrak provides passenger service between major cities of the state. In 2003 , the state had 132,391 km of roads and highways, of which 1,230 km were considered part of the federal interstate highway system.
The first newspaper published in Washington was The Columbian , first published in Olympia in 1852 . Currently in the state are published about 200 papers, including 28 daily. Are printed in about 175 periodicals. The first station radio of Washington was founded in 1920 in Everett, and the first season of television in the state was founded in 1948 in Seattle. Currently, Washington has 188 radio stations - of which 73 are AM and 115 are FM - and 26 television stations.
[ EDIT ]CULTURE
State Symbols === ===
* Tree: Tsuga , adopted in 1947
* Alias: Evergreen State
* Gem: Petrified Wood, adopted in 1975
* Grass: Agropyron spicatum
* Motto: Al-ki or Alki (the Chinook jargon : Bye Bye)
* Mammal: Orca
Music: Washington, My Home (Washington, My Home), adopted in 1959
* Folk: Roll On, Columbia, Roll On , adopted in 1987
* Ship: Port container- President Washington , adopted in 1983
* Bird: Carduelis tristis , adopted in 1951
* Slogan: Experience Washington, The Evergreen State (Experienced Washington State's Persistent Sheet)