|— Metropolitan City —|
|Lotus Temple, Humayun's Tomb,Connaught Place, Akshardham Temple, and India Gate|
|• Lieutenant Governor||Tejendra Khanna|
|• Chief Minister||Sheila Dikshit|
|• Metropolitan City||1,483 km2 (573 sq mi)|
|Elevation||216 m (709 ft)|
|• Metropolitan City||249,998|
|• Density||5,854.7/km2(15,164/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||DL-1x-x-xxxx to DL-13x-x-xxxx|
|Official languages||Hindi, Punjabi|
New Delhi i/ / is the capital of the Republic of India, and the seat of executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of the Government of India. It also serves as the centre of the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi and is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory.
The foundation stone of the city was laid on 15 December 1911. It was planned by two leading 20th-century British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new Capital was christened "New Delhi" in 1927, and subsequently inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by British India's Viceroy Lord Irwin. On 12 December 2011, New Delhi celebrated 100 years of capitalship, making it another landmark year in the long history of the historic capital of the region of Delhi. New Delhi is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Humayun's Tomb and the Qutub complex.There are areas like Old Delhi and Mehrauli in New Delhi which have a number of heritage structures.
New Delhi is known as the microcosm of India and is leading world’s top global cities with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transport all contributing to its prominence. The metropolis of Delhi is the 2nd most populous in India with a total population nearing 17 million residents, the capital city being the 10th most populous city in the world by city proper and has the 7th biggest urban agglomeration in the world with a population of 23 million people. The metropolis has the highest urban spread in the country with a total area of the city being 1482 km2.
According to Mercer, New Delhi is the most expensive city in India for expatriates in terms of cost of living, figuring 113th in the list of 214 cities. Reflecting the growing global economic clout of the Asian region, have been ranked among the 75 top centres of commerce in the world. The World Cities Study Group at Loughborough University rated New Delhi as an "alpha- world city". In 2011, Knight Frank's world city survey ranked it 37th globally. The National Geographic's Traveler Magazine describes it as "one of the Ultimate Cities of a Lifetime to visit and explore." In a report jointly prepared by Institute for Competitiveness and Confederation of Indian Industry, the city is listed as the best to live in India. The city of New Delhi is also known for its wide, tree-lined boulevards and is home to numerous national institutions, museums and landmarks.
Delhi was laid out to the south of the Old City which was constructed by MughalEmperor Shah Jahan. However, New Delhi overlies the site of seven ancient cities and hence includes many historic monuments like the Jantar Mantar, Humayun Tomb, Qila Rai Pithora and the Lodhi Gardens.
Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj until December 1911. However,Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient Indiaand the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire (as it was officially called) from Calcutta to Delhi. Unlike Calcutta, which was located on the eastern coast of India, Delhi was located in northern India and the Government of British India felt that it would be easier to administer India from Delhi rather than from Calcutta.
On 12 December 1911, during the Delhi Durbar, George V, the then Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his Consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp. The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens (Sir Edwin from 1918) and Herbert Baker(Sir Herbert from 1926), both leading 20th century British architects, and the contract was given toSobha Singh (later Sir Sobha Singh). Lutyens first visited Delhi in 1912, and construction really began after World War I and was completed by 1931, when the city later dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens laid out the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations.
However, soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the "Delhi Town Planning Committee on the planning of new Imperial capital" with George Swinton as chairman and John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted its reports for both "North" and "South" sites. However, it was rejected by the Viceroy, when the cost of compensation while acquiring the properties, was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was previously meant to be a North-South axis, linking Viceroy's House with Paharganj, as the end of the axis. During the early years of its making most tourists believed it was a gate from Earth to Heaven itself. Eventually owing to space constraints and presence of a large number heritage sites in the North side, the committee finalised on South site. A site atop theRaisina Hill, formerly Raisina village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan, then known as the Viceroy's House. The historic reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite to the Dinapanah citadel, which was also considered the site ofIndraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood as well, and embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat. The Rajpath, also known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, which houses various ministries of the Government of India, flanked out of the Rashtrapati Bhawan, and the Parliament House, both designed by Herbert Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath.
Towards the south, land till Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired for construction to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. Before the construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line, around the Council House (now Parliament House), called the 'Imperial Delhi Railway', was built to transport construction material and workers for the next 20 years. The last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railways line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial (India Gate), Kingsway (Rajpath) as the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city till then, eventually the line was shifted along Yamuna river and opened in 1924. The New Delhi Railway Station was opened in 1926 with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, ahead of the inauguration of the city in 1931. As the principal construction of the Viceroy's homeonesque|Viceroy House (present Rashtrapati Bhavan), Central Secretariat, Parliament House, and All-India War Memorial (India Gate) was winding down the construction of shopping district and plaza of the new capital, Connaught Place began in 1929, and was complete by 1933. Named after The Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught (1850–1942), it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the Public Works Department (PWD).
After the capital of India moved to Delhi, a temporary secretariat building was constructed in a few months in 1912 in North Delhi. Most of the government offices of the new capital moved here from the 'Old secretariat' in Old Delhi (the building now houses the Delhi Legislative Assembly), a decade before the new capital was inaugurated in 1931. Many employees were brought into the new capital from distant parts of India, including the Bengal Presidency and Madras Presidency. Subsequently housing for them was developed around Gole Market area in 1920s. Built in 1940s, to house government employees, with bungalows for senior officials in the nearby Lodhi Estate area, Lodhi colony near historic Lodhi Gardens, was the last residential areas built by the British Raj.
With a total area of 42.7 km2, New Delhi forms a small part of the Delhi metropolitan area and is located in the Indo-Gangetic Plainbecause of which there is little difference in the city's altitude. New Delhi and surrounding areas were once a part of the Aravalli Range, but all that is left now is the Delhi ridge, which is also called the Lungs of Delhi. The second feature is the Yamuna floodplains; New Delhi lies west of the Yamuna river, although for the most part, New Delhi is a landlocked city. East of the river is the urban area ofShahdara. New Delhi falls under the seismic zone-IV, making it vulnerable to earthquakes.
The climate of New Delhi is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with high variation between summer and winter, in terms of both temperatures and rainfall. The temperature varies from 46 °C (115 °F) in summers to around 0 °C (32 °F) in winters. The area's version of a humid subtropical climate is noticeably different from many other cities with this climate classification in that it features long and very hot summers, relatively dry and cool winters, a monsoonal period, and dust storms. Summers are long, from early April to October, with the monsoon season in the middle of the summer. Winter starts in November and peaks in January. The annual mean temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F); monthly daily mean temperatures range from approximately 14 to 34 °C (57 to 93 °F). New Delhi's highest temperature ever recorded is 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) while the lowest temperature ever recorded is −0.6 °C(30.9 °F). The average annual rainfall is 714 millimetres (28.1 in), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August.
|[hide]Climate data for New Delhi|
|Record high °C (°F)||25.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||10.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−20.5|
|Rainfall mm (inches)||175.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||167.0||190.4||222.7||255.0||288.2||310.5||283.8||245.0||218.3||190.5||164.8||137.0||2,673.2|
|Source #1: WMO, NOAA (extremes and humidity, 1971-1990) |
|Source #2: HKO (sun only, 1971–1990) |
The national capital of India, New Delhi is jointly administered by both the federalGovernment of India and the local Government of Delhi, is also the capital of the NCT of Delhi.
As of 2005, the government structure of the New Delhi Municipal Council includes a chairperson, three members of New Delhi's Legislative Assembly, two members nominated by the Chief Minister of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) and five members nominated by the central government.
The head of state of Delhi is the Lieutenant Governor of Union Territory of Delhi, appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Central government and the post is largely ceremonial, as the Chief Minister of Union Territory of Delhi is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. According to the Indian constitution, if a law passed by Delhi's legislative assembly is repugnant to any law passed by the Parliament of India, then the law enacted by the parliament shall prevail over the law enacted by the assembly.
New Delhi is governed through a municipal government, known as the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC). Other urban areas of the metropolis of Delhi are administered by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD). However, the entire metropolis of Delhi is commonly known as New Delhi in contrast to Old Delhi.
Much of New Delhi, planned by the leading 20th century British architect Edwin Lutyens, was laid out to be the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial pretensions. New Delhi is structured around two central promenades called theRajpath and the Janpath. The Rajpath, or King's Way, stretches from the Rashtrapati Bhavanto the India Gate. The Janpath (Hindi: "Path of the People"), formerly Queen's Way, begins at Connaught Circus and cuts the Rajpath at right angles. 19 foreign embassies are located on the nearby Shantipath (Hindi: "Path of Peace"), making it the largest diplomatic enclave in India.
At the heart of the city is the magnificent Rashtrapati Bhavan (formerly known as Viceroy's House) which sits atop Raisina Hill. The Secretariat, which houses various ministries of the Government of India, flanks out of the Rashtrapati Bhavan. The Parliament House, designed by Herbert Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath. TheConnaught Place is a large, circular commercial area in New Delhi, modelled after the Royal Crescent in England. Twelve separate roads lead out of the outer ring of Connaught Place, one of them being the Janpath.
Being a planned city, New Delhi has numerous arterial roads, some of which have an iconic status associated with them such as Rajpath, Janpath and Akbar Road. In 2005, private vehicles accounted for 30% of total transportation demand for the Delhi metropolitan area.Road construction and maintenance is primarily the responsibility of New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC)'s Civil Engineering Department. Underground subways are a common feature across New Delhi. As of 2008, 15 subways were operational. In 1971, the administrative responsibility of the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) was transferred fromMunicipal Corporation of Delhi to Government of India following which DTC extended its operations to New Delhi. In 2007, there were 2700 bus stops in New Delhi, of which 200 were built and maintained by NDMC and the rest by DTC.
Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is the primary aviation hub of Delhi. In 2011-2012, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 35 million passengers, making it the busiest airport in the country and also making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. New US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 will handle an additional 34 million passengers annually. Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020.Safdarjung Airport is the other airfield in Delhi used for general aviationpurpose.
Public transport in Delhi is provided by buses, auto rickshaws and a metro rail system. Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand. The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider for the city. The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of environment-friendly CNG buses. Delhi BRTS is Bus rapid transit serving the city which runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.
The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi as well as the satellite city of Gurgaon andNoida. As of October 2010, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 153 km (95 mi) and 130 stations while several other lines are under construction. The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II will cost an additional US$4.3 billion. Phase-II of the network is under construction and will have a total length of 128 km. It is expected to be completed by 2010. Phase-III and IV will be completed by 2015 and 2020 respectively, creating a network spanning 413.8 km, longer than that of the London Underground. Under an agreement with NDMC, DMRC can acquire land for the construction of metro rail and stations in New Delhi without any financial implications.NDMC is also constructing multi-level parking systems in collaboration with DMRC at various Delhi metro stations across New Delhi to increase parking space.
The New Delhi Railway Station which is the main railway station in Delhi, is the second busiest and one of the largest stations in India connects Delhi with the rest of the country.
Auto rickshaws are a popular means of public transportation in Delhi, as they charge a lower fare than taxis. Most run on Compressed natural gas and are yellow and green in colour. Taxis are not an integral part of Delhi public transport, though they are easily available. Private operators operate most taxis, and most neighbourhoods have a taxi stand from which taxis can be ordered or picked up. In addition, air-conditioned radio taxis, which can be ordered by calling a central number, have become increasingly popular, charging a flat rate of 15 per kilometre.
Delhi is a major junction in the rail map of India and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi Railway Station, Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla. Delhi is connected to other cities through many highways and expressways. Delhi currently has three expressways and three are under construction to connect it with its prosperous and commercial suburbs. The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with two prosperous suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida.
Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is situated in the western corner of Delhi and serves as the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2006–07, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 23 million passengers, making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. A new US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 handles an additional 34 million passengers annually in 2010. Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020.
Private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport. At 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km², Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India. Delhi is well connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. Roads in Delhi are maintained by MCD (Municipal Corporation of Delhi), NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.
Delhi's high population growth rate, coupled with high economic growth rate has resulted in an ever increasing demand for transport creating excessive pressure on the city's existent transport infrastructure. As of 2008. Also, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, i.e., Delhi NCR is 112 lakhs (11.2 million). In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents. In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered all public transport vehicles of Delhi to use compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel instead of diesel and other hydro-carbons.
Northern Peripheral Road road is being developed under the public private partnership (PPP) model. This stretch will connect Dwarka with National Highway 8 at Kherki Dhaula and will pass Pataudi Road. The NPR stretch has been planned as an alternate link road between Delhi and Gurgaon, and is expected to ease the traffic situation on the Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway. The road will also provide connectivity to the much-touted Reliance-HSIIDC SEZ besides the Garhi Harsaru dry depot.
New Delhi has a population of 249,998. The district has a population density of 5,854.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (15,164 /sq mi).
Hinduism is the religion of 86.8% of New Delhi's population. There are also large communities of Muslims (6.3%), Sikhs(2.4%), Jains (1.1%) and Christians (0.9%) in Delhi. Other religious groups (2.5%) include Parsis, Buddhists and Jews.Hindi and Punjabi are the main spoken languages in New Delhi.
New Delhi is a cosmopolitan city due to the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural presence of the vast Indian bureaucracy and political system. The city's capital status has amplified the importance of national events and holidays. National events such as Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti (Gandhi's birthday) are celebrated with great enthusiasm in New Delhi and the rest of India. On India's Independence Day (15 August) the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military might.
Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of light), Maha Shivaratri, Teej, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Baisakhi, Durga Puja, Holi,Lohri, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, Christmas and Mahavir Jayanti. The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with theQutub Minar as the chosen backdrop of the event. Other events such as Kite Flying Festival,International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi.
The New Delhi town plan, like its architecture, was chosen with one single chief consideration: to be a symbol of British power and supremacy. All other decisions were subordinate to this, and it was this framework that dictated the choice and application of symbology and influences from both Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim architecture.
It took about 20 years to build the city from 1911. Many elements of New Delhi architecture borrow from indigenous sources; however, they fit into a British Classical/Palladian tradition. The fact that there were any indigenous features in the design were due to the persistence and urging of both the Viceroy Lord Hardinge and historians like E.B. Havell.
Historic sites and museums
New Delhi is home to several historic sites and museums. The National Museum which began with an exhibition of Indian art and artefacts at theRoyal Academy in London in the winter of 1947–48 was later at the end was shown at theRashtrapati Bhawan in 1949. Later it was to form a permanent National Museum. On 15 August 1949, the National Museum was formally inaugurated and currently has 200,000 works of art, both of Indian and foreign origin, covering over 5,000 years.
The India Gate built in 1931 was inspired by the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. It is the national monument of India commemorating the 90,000 soldiers of the Indian Army who lost their lives while fighting for the British Raj inWorld War I and the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
The Rajpath which was built similar to the Champs-Élysées in Paris is the ceremonial boulevard for the Republic of India located in New Delhi. The annual Republic Day parade takes place here on 26 January.
Gandhi Smriti in New Delhi is the location where Mahatma Gandhi spent the last 144 days of his life and was assassinated on 30 January 1948. Rajghat is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated on 31 January 1948 after his assassination and his ashes were buried and make it a final resting place beside the sanctity of the Yamuna River. The Raj Ghat in the shape of large square platform with black marble was designed by architect Vanu Bhuta.
Jantar Mantar located in Connaugth Place was built byMaharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur. It consists of 13 architectural astronomy instruments. The primary purpose of the observatory was to compile astronomical tables, and to predict the times and movements of the sun, moon and planets.
Qutb Minar constructed with red sandstone and marble, and is the tallest minaret in India, with a height of 72.5 meters (237.8 ft), contains 379 stairs to reach the top, and the diameter of base is 14.3 meters where as the last store is of 2.7 meters.
New Delhi is home to Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum, National Gallery of Modern Art, National Museum of Natural History, National Rail Museum, National Handicrafts and Handlooms Museum, National Philatelic Museum, Nehru Planetarium, Shankar's International Dolls Museum. and Supreme Court of India Museum.
Historic places in New Delhi include Jantar Mantar, Gandhi Smriti, Buddha Jayanti Park and Lodi Gardens.
In the coming years, a new National War Memorial and a new National War Memorial Museum is going to be constructed in New Delhi.
The city hosted the 2010 Commonwealth Games and annually hosts Delhi Half Marathon foot-race. The city has previously hosted the1951 Asian Games and the 1982 Asian Games. New Delhi was interested  in bidding for the 2019 Asian Games but was turned down by the government on August 2, 2010 amid allegations of corruption in 2010 Commonwealth Games .
Major sporting venues in New Delhi include the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Ambedkar Stadium, Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Feroz Shah Kotla Ground, Dhyan Chand National Stadium and Siri Fort Sports Complex.
|Delhi Daredevils||Cricket||IPL||Feroz Shah Kotla Ground||2008–Present|
|Delhi Wizards||Field hockey||WSH||Dhyan Chand National Stadium||2011–Present|
|Delhi Waveriders||Field hockey||HIL||Dhyan Chand National Stadium||2013–Present|
|Delhi Giants||Cricket||ICL||2007 - 2008|
Connaught Place, one of North India's largest commercial and financial centres, is located in the northern part of New Delhi. Adjoining areas such as Barakhamba Road, ITO are also major commercial centres. Government and quasi government sector was the primary employer in New Delhi. The city's service sector has expanded due in part to the large skilled English-speaking workforce that has attracted many multinational companies. Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.
The 2011 World Wealth Report ranks economic activity in New Delhi at 39, but overall the capital is ranked at 37, above cities like Jakarta and Johannesburg.
The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi does not release any economic figures specifically for New Delhi but publishes an official economic report on the whole of Delhi annually. According to the Economic Survey of Delhi, the metropolis has a netState Domestic Product (SDP) of Rs. 83,085 crores (for the year 2004–05) and a per capita income of Rs. 53,976($ 1,200). In the year 2008–09 New Delhi had a Per Capita Income of Rs.1,16,886 ($ 2,595).It grew by 16.2% to reach Rs.1,35,814 ($ 3,018) in 2009–10 fiscal. New Delhi's Per Capita GDP (at PPP) was at $ 6,860 during 2009–10 fiscal, making it one of the richest cities in India. The tertiary sector contributes 78.4% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary andprimary sectors with 20.2% and 1.4% contribution respectively.
The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Delhi at current prices for the year 2011-12 has been estimated at Rs 3.13 lakh crore, which is an increase of 18.7 per cent over the previous fiscal.