terça-feira, 13 de outubro de 2015


United Mexican States
Estados Unidos Mexicanos
FlagCoat of arms
Anthem: Himno Nacional Mexicano
(English: "Mexican National Anthem")
and largest city
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°08′W
Official languagesNone at federal level
Recognised regional languages
National languageSpanish[b]
GovernmentFederal presidential
constitutional republic[2]
 - PresidentEnrique Peña Nieto(PRIPRI Party (Mexico).svg
 - President of the SenateMiguel Barbosa Huerta(PRDPRD Party (Mexico).svg
 - President of the Chamber of DeputiesSilvano Aureoles Conejo (PRDPRD Party (Mexico).svg
 - Upper houseSenate
 - Lower houseChamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
 - DeclaredSeptember 16, 1810[3] 
 - ConsummatedSeptember 27, 1821 
 - RecognizedDecember 28, 1836 
 - First constitutionOctober 4, 1824 
 - Second constitutionFebruary 5, 1857 
 - Current constitutionFebruary 5, 1917 
 - Total1,972,550 km2 (14th)
761,606 sq mi
 - Water (%)2.5
 - 2015 estimate121,736,809[4] (11th)
 - Density57/km2 (142nd)
142/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
 - Total$2.224 trillion[5] (11th)
 - Per capita$18,370[5] (66th)
GDP (nominal)2015 estimate
 - Total$1.232 trillion[5] (13th)
 - Per capita$10,174[5] (65th)
Gini (2010)47.2[6]
HDI (2013)Decrease 0.756[7]
high · 71st
CurrencyPeso (MXN)
Time zoneSee Time in Mexico(UTC−8 to −5)
 - Summer (DST)varies (UTC−7 to −5)
Drives on theright
Calling code+52
ISO 3166 codeMX
Internet TLD.mx
a.Article 4.° of the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples.[8]
b.^ Spanish is the de facto official language of the Mexican federal government.
Mexico (Listeni/ˈmɛksɨk/SpanishMéxico [ˈmexiko]), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos MexicanosAbout this sound listen ),[9][10][11][12] is a federal republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by GuatemalaBelize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico.[13] Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi),[12] Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americasby total area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million,[14] it is theeleventh most populous and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the second most populous country inLatin America. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, its capital and largest city.
Pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, theZapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This territory would eventually become Mexico following recognition of the colony's independence in 1821. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by economic instability, the Mexican-American War that led to the territorial cession to the United States, the Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil wartwo empires and a domestic dictatorship. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system.
Mexico has one of the world's largest and most diversified economies, with an abundance of natural resources such as oil and silver. It has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest GDP by purchasing power parity. The Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States.[15][16] Mexico was the firstLatin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD (since 1994), and is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank[17] and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.[18][19][20][21] By 2050, Mexico could become the world's fifth or seventh largest economy.[22][23] The country is subsequently considered both a regional power and middle power,[24][25][26][27] and is often identified as an emerging global power.[28] Owing to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and sixth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites,[29][30][31] and in 2010 was the tenth most visited country in the world, with 22.5 million international arrivals annually.[32] Mexico is a member of the UN, the WTO, theG20 and the Uniting for Consensus.


Main article: Name of Mexico
Image of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza
Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely,[33] the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica, and surrounding territories which became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence (compare Latium). It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, or vice versa. After New Spain won independence from Spain, it was decided that the new country would be named after its capital, Mexico City, which was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan.
Traditionally, its name was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl [ˈtetɬ] ("rock") and nōchtli [ˈnoːtʃtɬi] ("prickly pear") and is often thought to mean "Among the prickly pears [growing among] rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain.[34]
The suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain. It has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexicas, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives".[35] Another hypothesis[36] suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "Moon" (Mētztli) and navel (xīctli). This meaning ("Place at the Center of the Moon") might then refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the Moon. Still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from Mēctli, the goddess ofmaguey.[36]
The name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter 'x' in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ]. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative [ʒ], represented by a 'j', evolved into a voiceless velar fricative [x] during the 16th century. This led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries México was the preferred spelling. In recent years the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish language, determined that both variants are acceptable in Spanish but that the normative recommendedspelling is México.[37] The majority of publications in all Spanish-speaking countries now adhere to the new norm, even though the alternative variant is still occasionally used.[citation needed] In English, the 'x' in Mexico represents neither the original nor the current sound, but the consonant cluster [ks].
The official name of the country has changed as the form of government has changed. On three occasions (1325–1521, 1821–1823, and 1863–1867). The country was known asImperio Mexicano (Mexican Empire). All three federal constitutions (1824, 1857 and 1917, the current constitution) used the name Estados Unidos Mexicanos[38]—or the variantEstados-Unidos Mexicanos,[39] all of which have been translated as "United Mexican States". The phrase República Mexicana, "Mexican Republic", was used in the 1836 Constitutional Laws.[40] On November 22, 2012, president Felipe Calderón sent to the Mexican Congress a piece of legislation to change the country's name officially to simply Mexico. To go into effect, the bill would need to be passed by both houses of Congress, as well as a majority of Mexico's 31 State legislatures. As this legislation was proposed just a week before Calderón turned power over to Enrique Peña Nieto, Calderón's critics saw this as a symbolic gesture.[41]


Main article: History of Mexico
Cuauhxicalli in the shape of an eagle, from the Templo Mayor

Ancient cultures

Main article: Pre-Columbian Mexico
The earliest human remains in Mexico are chips of stone tools found near campfire remains in the Valley of Mexico and radiocarbon-dated to circa 10,000 years ago.[42] Mexico is the site of the domestication of maize and beans which caused a transition from paleo-Indianhunter-gatherers to sedentary agricultural villages beginning around 5000 BCE.[43]
In the subsequent formative eras, maize cultivation and cultural traits such as a complex mythological and religious complex, a vigesimal numeric system, were diffused from the Mexican cultures to the rest of the Mesoamerican culture area[44] In this period villages began to become socially stratified and develop into chiefdoms, and large ceremonial centers developed.[45]
Among the earliest complex civilizations in Mexico was the Olmec culture which flourished on the Gulf Coast from around 1500 BCE. Olmec cultural traits diffused through Mexico into other formative-era cultures in Chiapas, Oaxaca and the Valley of Mexico. The formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes.[46]
In the subsequent pre-classical period, the Maya and Zapotec civilizations developed complex centers at Calakmul and Monte Albánrespectively. During this period the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures, and the Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic script.[47]
In Central Mexico, the height of the classic period saw the ascendancy of Teotihuacan, which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area as well as north. Teotihuacan, with a population of more than 150,000 people, had some of the largest pyramidal structures in the pre-Columbian Americas.[48] After the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 CE, competition ensued between several important political centers in central Mexico such as Xochicalco and Cholula. At this time, during the Epi-Classic, Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, and became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers ofOto-Manguean languages.

Post-classic period (700–1519 AD)

A view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, one of the largest cities in the world at the time.
During the early post-classic Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec and the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichén Itzá and Mayapán. Towards the end of the post-Classic period, the Mexica.[clarification needed]
Alexander von Humboldt originated the modern usage of "Aztec" as a collective term applied to all the people linked by trade, custom, religion, and language to the Mexica state and Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, the Triple Alliance. In 1843, with the publication of the work of William H. Prescott, it was adopted by most of the world, including 19th century Mexican scholars who saw it as a way to distinguish present-day Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans. This usage has been the subject of debate in more recent years.[49]
The Aztec empire was an informal or hegemonic empire because it did not exert supreme authority over the conquered lands; it merely expected tributes to be paid. It was also a discontinuous empire because not all dominated territories were connected; for example, the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in direct contact with the center. The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire can be seen in the fact that generally local rulers were restored to their positions once their city-state was conquered and the Aztecs did not interfere in local affairs, as long as the tribute payments were made.[50]
The Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mexico.[51] The Aztecs were noted for practicing human sacrifice on a large scale. Along with this practice of delayed death, the killing of enemies on the battlefield was avoided; making their warring casualty rate far lower than their Spanish counterparts whose principal objective was immediate slaughter during battle.[52] This distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, and over the next centuries Mexican indigenous cultures were gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule.[53]

Spanish conquest (1519)

Further information: Spanish conquest of Mexico
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his troops. Emanuel Leutze. Painting, 1848
The Spanish first heard of Mexico during the Juan de Grijalva expedition of 1518, the natives kept "repeating: Colua, Colua, and Mexico, Mexico, but we did not know what Colua or Mexico meant", until encountering Montezuma's Governor at the mouth of the Rio de las Banderas.[54]:33–36 The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire began in February 1519 when Hernán Cortés arrived at the port in Veracruzwith ca. 500 conquistadores, and later moved on to the Aztec capital. On his search for gold and other riches, Cortés decided to invade and conquer the Aztec empire.[55]
The ruler of the Aztec empire upon the arrival of the Spaniards was Moctezuma II, who was later killed; his successor and brotherCuitláhuac took control of the Aztec empire, but was among the first to fall from the smallpox epidemic a short time later.[56] Unintentionally introduced by Spanish conquerors, smallpox ravaged Mesoamerica in the 1520s, killing more than 3 million Aztecs.[57] Other sources, however, mentioned that the death toll of the Aztecs might have reached up to 15 million (out of a population of less than 30 million).[58]Severely weakened, the Aztec empire was easily defeated by Cortés and his forces on his second return.[59]
Smallpox was a devastating and selective disease—it generally killed Aztecs but not Spaniards, who as Europeans had already been exposed to it for centuries and were therefore much more immune to it.[60] The deaths caused by smallpox are believed to have triggered a rapid growth of Christianity in Mexico and the Americas. At first, the Aztecs believed the epidemic was a punishment from an angry god, but they later accepted their fate and no longer resisted the Spanish rule.[61] Many of the surviving Aztecs blamed the cause of smallpox to the superiority of the Christian god, which resulted in the acceptance of Catholicism and yielding to the Spanish rule throughout Mexico.[62]
The territory became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New SpainMexico City was systematically rebuilt by Cortés following the Fall of Tenochtitlan in 1521. Much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico were created during the colonial period.[63]

Colonial period (1519–1821)

The capture of Tenochtitlan marked the beginning of a 300-year-long colonial period, during which Mexico was known as "New Spain".

Period of the conquest (1521–1650)

Contrary to a widespread misconception, Spain did not conquer all of the Aztec Empire when Cortes took Tenochtitlan. It required another two centuries to complete the conquest: rebellions broke out within the old Empire and wars continued with other native peoples.
After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it took decades of sporadic warfare to subdue the rest of Mesoamerica. Particularly fierce was the Chichimeca War (1576–1606) and the Tepehuán Revolt (1616–1620) in the north.
Economics. The Council of Indies and the mendicant establishments, which arose in Mesoamerica as early as 1524, labored to generate capital for the crown of Spain and convert the Indian populations to Catholicism. During this period and the following Colonial periods the sponsorship of mendicant friars and a process of religious syncretism combined the Pre-Hispanic cultures with Spanish socio-religious tradition.
Equestrian statue of Charles IV inMexico City, the king was the maximum authority of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
The resulting hodgepodge of culture was a pluriethnic State that relied on the "repartimiento", a system of peasant "Republic of Indians" labor that carried out any necessary work. Thus, the existing feudal system of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican culture was replaced by theencomienda feudal-style system of Spain, probably adapted to the pre-Hispanic tradition. This in turn was finally replaced by a debt-based inscription of labor that led to widespread revitalization movements and prompted the revolution that ended colonial New Spain.
Evolution of the Race. During the three centuries of colonial rule, less than 700,000 Spaniards, most of them men, settled in Mexico. The settlers intermarried with indigenous women, fathering the mixed race (mestizo) descendents who today constitute the majority of Mexico's population.

The colonial period (1650–1821)

Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, oil on canvas, 1772.
During this period, Mexico was part of the much larger Viceroyalty of New Spain, which included CubaPuerto RicoCentral America as far south as Costa RicaFlorida, the southwestern United States and the PhilippinesSpain during the 16th century focused its energies on areas with dense populations that had produced Pre-Columbian civilizations, since these areas could provide the settlers with a disciplined labor force and a population to catechize.
Territories populated by nomadic peoples were harder to conquer, and though the Spanish did explore a good part of North America, seeking the fabled "El Dorado", they made no concerted effort to settle the northern desert regions in what is now the United States until the end of the 16th century (Santa Fe, 1598).
Colonial law with Spanish roots but original native features were introduced, creating a hierarchy between local jurisdiction (the Cabildos) and the Crown's, whereby upper administrative offices were closed to the natives, even those of pure Spanish blood. Administration was based on the racial separation of the population among "Republics" of Spaniards, Indians and Mestizos, autonomous and directly dependent on the king himself.
From an economic point of view, New Spain was administered principally for the benefit of the Empire and its military and defensive efforts (Mexico provided more than half of the Empire's taxes and supported the administration of all North and Central America). Competition with Spain was discouraged to the extent that activities like cultivation of grapes and olives, introduced by Cortez himself, was banned out of fear that these crops would compete with Spain's.
In order to protect Mexico from the attacks of English, French and Dutch pirates, as well as the Crown's revenue, only two ports were open to foreign trade—Veracruz on the Atlantic and Acapulco on the Pacific. The pirates attacked, plundered and ravaged several cities likeCampeche (1557), Veracruz (1568) and Alvarado (1667).
Education was encouraged by the Crown from the very beginning, and Mexico boasts the first primary school (Texcoco, 1523), first university (1551) and the first printing house (1524) of the Americas. Indigenous languages were studied mainly by the religious orders during the first centuries, and became official languages in the so-called Republic of Indians, only to be outlawed and ignored after independence by the prevailing Spanish-speaking creoles.
Mexico produced important cultural achievements during the colonial period, like the literature of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz and Ruiz de Alarcón, as well as cathedrals, civil monuments, forts and colonial cities such as PueblaMexico CityQuerétaroZacatecas and others, today part of Unesco's World Heritage.
The syncretism between indigenous and Spanish cultures in New Spain gave birth to many of today's Mexican cultural traits like tequila (first distilled in the 16th century), mariachi(18th), jarabe (17th), charros (17th) and Mexican cuisine – a mixture of European and indigenous ingredients and techniques.

Independence from Spain (1821)

The Territorial evolution of Mexicoafter independence, noting losses to the US (red, white and orange),Chiapas annexed from Guatemala(blue), the annexation of the Republic of Yucatan (red) and the secession ofCentral America (purple)
On September 16, 1810, a "loyalist revolt" against the ruling Junta was declared by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, in the small town ofDolores, Guanajuato.[64] The first insurgent group was formed by Hidalgo, the Spanish viceregal army captain Ignacio Allende, the militiacaptain Juan Aldama and "La Corregidora" Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez. Hidalgo and some of his soldiers were captured and executed by firing squad in Chihuahua, on July 31, 1811. Following his death, the leadership was assumed by priest José María Morelos, who occupied key southern cities.
In 1813 the Congress of Chilpancingo was convened and, on November 6, signed the "Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America". Morelos was captured and executed on December 22, 1815.
In subsequent years, the insurgency was near collapse, but in 1820 Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent an army under the criollo generalAgustín de Iturbide against the troops of Vicente Guerrero. Instead, Iturbide approached Guerrero to join forces, and on August 24, 1821 representatives of the Spanish Crown and Iturbide signed the "Treaty of Córdoba" and the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire", which recognized the independence of Mexico under the terms of the "Plan of Iguala".

Birth of Mexico (1821)

Territorial losses and Juárez reforms (1821-1876)

Emperor Agustin I
President Benito Juárez
Agustín de Iturbide immediately proclaimed himself emperor of the First Mexican Empire. A revolt against him in 1823 established theUnited Mexican States. In 1824, a Republican Constitution was drafted and Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of the newly born country. In 1829 president Guerrero abolished slavery.[65] The first decades of the post-independence period were marked by economic instability, which led to the Pastry War in 1836, and a constant strife between liberales, supporters of a federal form of government, and conservadores, proposals of a hierarchical form of government.[citation needed]
General Antonio López de Santa Anna, a centralist and two-time dictator, approved the Siete Leyes in 1836, a radical amendment that institutionalized the centralized form of government. When he suspended the 1824 Constitution, civil war spread across the country, and three new governments declared independence: the Republic of Texas, the Republic of the Rio Grande and the Republic of Yucatán.
Texas successfully achieved independence and joined the United States. A border dispute led to the Mexican-American War, which began in 1846 and lasted for two years; the War was settled via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which forced Mexico to give up over half of its land to the U.S., including Alta CaliforniaNew Mexico, and the disputed parts of Texas. A much smaller transfer of territory in what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico — the Gadsden Purchase — occurred in 1854.[66] The Caste War of Yucatán, the Mayan uprising that began in 1847,[67] was one of the most successful modern Native American revolts.[68] Maya rebels, or Cruzob,[69] maintained relatively independent enclaves until the 1930s.[citation needed]
Dissatisfaction with Santa Anna's return to power led to the liberal "Plan of Ayutla", initiating an era known as La Reforma, after which a new Constitution was drafted in 1857 that established a secular state, federalism as the form of government, and several freedoms. As the conservadores refused to recognize it, the Reform War began in 1858, during which both groups had their own governments. The war ended in 1861 with victory by the Liberals, led by the Amerindian president Benito Juárez. In the 1860s Mexico underwent a military occupation by France, which established the Second Mexican Empire under the rule of the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and the conservadores, who later switched sides and joined the liberales. Maximilian surrendered, was tried on June 14 and was executed on June 19, 1867.

Porfiriato (1876–1910)

Porfirio Díaz, a republican general during the French intervention, ruled Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and then from 1884 to 1911 in five consecutive reelections, period known as the Porfiriato, characterized by remarkable economic achievements, investments in the arts and sciences, but also ofeconomic inequality and political repression.[citation needed]

Mexican Revolution (1910–1929)

Further information: Mexican Revolution
President Díaz announced in 1908 that he would retire in 1911, resulting in the development of new coalitions. But then he ran for reelection anyway and in a show of U.S. support, Díaz and William Howard Taft planned a summit in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, for October 16, 1909, an historic first meeting between a Mexican and a U.S. president and also the first time an American president would cross the border into Mexico.[70] Both sides agreed that the disputed Chamizal strip connecting El Paso to Ciudad Juárez would be considered neutral territory with no flags present during the summit, but the meeting focused attention on this territory and resulted in assassination threats and other serious security concerns.[70]
On the day of the summit, Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated scout, and Private C.R. Moore, a Texas Ranger, discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route, and they disarmed the assassin within only a few feet of Díaz and Taft.[70] Both presidents were unharmed and the summit was held.[70] Díaz was re-elected in 1910, but alleged electoral fraud forced him into exile in France and sparked the 1910 Mexican Revolution, initially led by Francisco I. Madero.
Madero was elected president but overthrown and murdered in a coup d'état two years later directed by conservative general Victoriano Huerta. That event re-ignited the civil war, involving figures such as Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata, who formed their own forces. A third force, the constitutional army led by Venustiano Carranza managed to bring an end to the war, and radically amended the 1857 Constitution to include many of the social premises and demands of the revolutionaries into what was eventually called the 1917 Constitution. It is estimated that the war killed 900,000 of the 1910 population of 15 million.[71][72]
Assassinated in 1920, Carranza was succeeded by another revolutionary hero, Álvaro Obregón, who in turn was succeeded by Plutarco Elías Calles. Obregón was reelected in 1928 but assassinated before he could assume power. Although this period is usually referred to as the Mexican Revolution, it might also be termed a civil war since president Díaz (1909) narrowly escaped assassination and presidents Francisco I. Madero (1913), Venustiano Carranza (1920), Álvaro Obregón (1928), and former revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata (1919) and Pancho Villa (1923) all were assassinated during this period.

One-party rule (1929–2000)

In 1929, Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party (PNR), later renamed the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and started a period known as the Maximato, which ended with the election of Lázaro Cárdenas, who implemented many economic and social reforms. This included the Mexican oil expropriation in March 1938, which nationalized the U.S. and Anglo-Dutch oil company known as the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company. This movement would result in the creation of the state-owned Mexican oil company known as Pemex. This sparked a diplomatic crisis with the countries whose citizens had lost businesses by Cárdenas' radical measure, but since then the company has played an important role in the economic development of Mexico.
Students in a burned bus during theprotests of 1968.
Between 1940 and 1980, Mexico remained a poor country but experienced substantial economic growth that some historians call the "Mexican miracle".[73] Although the economy continued to flourish, social inequality remained a factor of discontent. Moreover, the PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive[74] (see the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre,[75] which claimed the life of around 30–800 protesters).[76]
Electoral reforms and high oil prices followed the administration of Luis Echeverría,[77][78] mismanagement of these revenues led to inflation and exacerbated the 1982 Crisis. That year, oil prices plunged, interest rates soared, and the government defaulted on its debtPresident Miguel de la Madrid resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation.
In the 1980s the first cracks emerged in PRI's monopolistic position. In Baja CaliforniaErnesto Ruffo Appel was elected as governor. In 1988, alleged electoral fraud prevented the leftist candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas from winning the national presidential elections, givingCarlos Salinas de Gortari the presidency and leading to massive protests in Mexico City.[79]
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) president Carlos Salinas de Gortari, president George H. W. Bush (U.S.) and prime minister Brian Mulroney(Canada); (seated) Jaime Serra Puche,Carla Hills (U.S.) and Michael Wilson(Canada)
Salinas embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchange rate, controlled inflation and culminated with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect on January 1, 1994. The same day, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) started a two-week-long armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against neoliberalism and globalization.

End of one-party rule (2000–present)

In December 1994, a month after Salinas was succeeded by Ernesto Zedillo, the Mexican economy collapsed, with a rapid rescue package authorized by the U.S. President, Bill Clinton, and major macroeconomic reforms started by President Zedillo, the economy rapidly recovered and growth peaked at almost 7% by the end of 1999.[80]
In 2000, after 71 years, the PRI lost a presidential election to Vicente Fox of the opposition National Action Party (PAN). In the 2006 presidential election, Felipe Calderón from the PAN was declared the winner, with a very narrow margin over leftist politician Andrés Manuel López Obrador of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). López Obrador, however, contested the election and pledged to create an "alternative government".[81]
After twelve years, in 2012, the PRI won the Presidency again with the election of Enrique Peña Nieto, the governor of the State of Mexicofrom 2005-2011. However, he won with only a plurality of about 38%, and did not have a legislative majority.[82]


Main article: Geography of Mexico
A topographic map of Mexico.
Mexico is located between latitudes 14° and 33°N, and longitudes 86° and 119°W in the southern portion of North America.[citation needed] Almost all of Mexico lies in the North American Plate, with small parts of the Baja California peninsula on the Pacific and Cocos PlatesGeophysically, some geographers include the territory east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (around 12% of the total) within Central America.[83] Geopolitically, however, Mexico is entirely considered part of North America, along with Canada and the United States.[84]
Citlatepetl is the tallest mountain in Mexico at 18,491 feet above sea level.
Mexico's total area is 1,972,550 km2 (761,606 sq mi), making it the world's 14th largest country by total area, and includes approximately 6,000 km2 (2,317 sq mi) of islands in the Pacific Ocean (including the remote Guadalupe Islandand the Revillagigedo Islands), Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Gulf of California. From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over 2,000 mi (3,219 km) in length.
On its north, Mexico shares a 3,141 km (1,952 mi) border with the United States. The meandering Río Bravo del Norte (known as the Rio Grande in the United States) defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean. On its south, Mexico shares an 871 km (541 mi) border with Guatemala and a 251 km (156 mi) border with Belize.
Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental, which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America. From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada. A fourth mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, runs from Michoacán toOaxaca.[85]
As such, the majority of the Mexican central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Pico de Orizaba (5,700 m or 18,701 ft), Popocatepetl (5,462 m or 17,920 ft) and Iztaccihuatl (5,286 m or 17,343 ft) and the Nevado de Toluca (4,577 m or 15,016 ft). Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: TolucaGreater Mexico City and Puebla.[85]


Main article: Climate of Mexico
El Puente de Dios (The Bridge of God) in Tamasopo, SLP.
The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. This gives Mexico one of the world's most diverse weather systems.
Areas south of the 24th parallel with elevations up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft) (the southern parts of both coastal plains as well as the Yucatán Peninsula), have a yearly median temperature between 24 to 28 °C (75.2 to 82.4 °F). Temperatures here remain high throughout the year, with only a 5 °C (9 °F) difference between winter and summer median temperatures. Both Mexican coasts, except for the south coast of the Bay of Campeche and northern Baja, are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall. Although low-lying areas north of the 24th parallel are hot and humid during the summer, they generally have lower yearly temperature averages (from 20 to 24 °C or 68.0 to 75.2 °F) because of more moderate conditions during the winter.
Many large cities in Mexico are located in the Valley of Mexico or in adjacent valleys with altitudes generally above 2,000 m (6,562 ft). This gives them a year-round temperate climate with yearly temperature averages (from 16 to 18 °C or 60.8 to 64.4 °F) and cool nighttime temperatures throughout the year.
Many parts of Mexico, particularly the north, have a dry climate with sporadic rainfall while parts of the tropical lowlands in the south average more than 2,000 mm (78.7 in) of annual precipitation. For example, many cities in the north like MonterreyHermosillo, and Mexicali experience temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) or more in summer. In the Sonoran Desert temperatures reach 50 °C (122 °F) or more.
In 2012, Mexico passed a comprehensive climate change bill, a first in the developing world, that has set a goal for the country to generate 35% of its energy from clean energy sources by 2024, and to cut emissions by 50% by 2050, from the level found in 2000.[86][87]


The jaguar, a native mammal of Mexico
Mexico is one of the 18 megadiverse countries of the world. With over 200,000 different species, Mexico is home of 10–12% of the world's biodiversity.[88] Mexico ranks first in biodiversity in reptiles with 707 known species, second in mammals with 438 species, fourth inamphibians with 290 species, and fourth in flora, with 26,000 different species.[89] Mexico is also considered the second country in the world in ecosystems and fourth in overall species.[90] Approximately 2,500 species are protected by Mexican legislations.[90]
The golden eagle, the national symbol of Mexico
In 2002, Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil.[91] The government has taken another initiative in the late 1990s to broaden the people's knowledge, interest and use of the country's esteemed biodiversity, through theComisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad.
In Mexico, 170,000 square kilometres (65,637 sq mi) are considered "Protected Natural Areas." These include 34 biosphere reserves (unaltered ecosystems), 67 national parks, 4 natural monuments (protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value), 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection (conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests) and 17 sanctuaries (zones rich in diverse species).[88]
The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used food crops and edible plants. Some of Mexico's nativeculinary ingredients include: chocolate, avocado, tomato, maize, vanillaguavachayoteepazotecamotejícamanopalzucchini,tejocotehuitlacochesapotemamey sapote, many varieties of beans, and an even greater variety of chiles, such as the habanero and the jalapeño. Most of these names come from indigenous languages like Nahuatl.
Because of its high biodiversity Mexico has also been a frequent site of bioprospecting by international research bodies.[92] The first highly successful instance being the discovery in 1947 of the tuber "Barbasco" (Dioscorea composita) which has a high content of diosgenin, revolutionizing the production of synthetic hormones in the 1950s and 1960s and eventually leading to the invention of combined oral contraceptive pills.[93]

Government and politics


Enrique Peña Nieto, President of Mexico.
The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution. The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress and the judiciary, which will include called state Supreme Court of Justice. They also have their own civil and judicial codes.
The legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Union, composed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress makes federal law, declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.[94]
The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected by a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation.[95] The Chamber of Deputies has 500 deputies. Of these, 300 are elected by plurality vote in single-member districts (thefederal electoral districts) and 200 are elected by proportional representation with closed party lists[96] for which the country is divided into five electoral constituencies.[97] The Senate is made up of 128 senators. Of these, 64 senators (two for each state and two for the Federal District) are elected by plurality vote in pairs; 32 senators are the first minority or first-runner up (one for each state and one for the Federal District), and 32 are elected by proportional representation from national closed party lists.[96]
The executive is the President of the United Mexican States, who is the head of state and government, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces. The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the power to veto bills.[98]
The highest organ of the judicial branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice, the national supreme court, which has eleven judges appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judges cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Federal Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.[99]


Main article: Politics of Mexico
Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: the National Action Party: a right-wing conservative party founded in 1939 and belonging to the Christian Democrat Organization of America;[100] the Institutional Revolutionary Party, a center-left party and member of Socialist International[101] that was founded in 1929 to unite all the factions of the Mexican Revolution and held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since then; the Party of the Democratic Revolution: a left-wing party,[102] founded in 1989 as the successor of the coalition of socialists and liberal parties.

Law enforcement

Federal Policeheadquarters in Mexico City
Public security is enacted at the three levels of government, each of which has different prerogatives and responsibilities. Local and state police departments are primarily in charge of law enforcement, whereas the Mexican Federal Police are in charge of specialized duties. All levels report to the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública (Secretary of Public Security). The General Attorney's Office (Procuraduría General de la República, PGR) is the executive power's agency in charge of investigating and prosecuting crimes at the federal level, mainly those related to drug and arms trafficking,[103] espionage, and bank robberies.[104] The PGR operates the Federal Investigations Agency (Agencia Federal de Investigación, AFI) an investigative and preventive agency.[105]
While the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, serious abuses of power have been reported in security operations in the southern part of the country and in indigenous communities and poor urban neighborhoods.[106] The National Human Rights Commission has had little impact in reversing this trend, engaging mostly in documentation but failing to use its powers to issue public condemnations to the officials who ignore its recommendations.[107] By law, all defendants have the rights that assure them fair trials and human treatment; however, the system is overburdened and overwhelmed with several problems.[106]
Despite the efforts of the authorities to fight crime and fraud, most Mexicans have low confidence in the police or the judicial system, and therefore, few crimes are actually reported by the citizens.[106] The Global Integrity Index which measures the existence and effectiveness of national anti-corruption mechanisms rated Mexico 31st behind Kenya, Thailand, and Russia.[108] In 2008, president Calderón proposed a major reform of the judicial system, which was approved by the Congress of the Union, which included oral trials, the presumption of innocence for defendants, the authority of local police to investigate crime—until then a prerogative of special police units—and several other changes intended to speed up trials.[109]


Main articles: Crime in Mexico and Mexican Drug War
According to an OECD study in 2012, 15% of Mexicans report having been a victim of crime in the past year, a figure which among OECD countries is only higher in South Africa.[110] In 2010 Mexico's homicide rate was 18 per 100,000 inhabitants;[111] the world average is 6.9 per 100,000 inhabitants.[112] Drug-traffic and narco-related activities are a major concern in Mexico.[113] Mexico's drug war has left over 60,000 dead and perhaps another 20,000 missing.[114] The Mexican drug cartels have as many as 100,000 members.[115] The Mexican government's National Geography and Statistics Institute estimated that there were 41, 563 crimes per 100,000 residents in 2012.[116]
President Felipe Calderón made abating organized crime one of the top priorities of his administration by deploying military personnel to cities where drug cartels operate. This move was criticized by the opposition parties and the National Human Rights Commission for escalating the violence, but its effects have been positively evaluated by the US State Department's Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs as having obtained "unprecedented results" with "many important successes".[117]
Since President Felipe Calderón launched a crackdown against cartels in 2006, more than 28,000 alleged criminals have been killed.[118][119] Of the total drug-related violence 4% are innocent people,[120] mostly by-passers and people trapped in between shootings; 90% accounts for criminals and 6% for military personnel and police officers.[120] In October 2007, President Calderón and US president George W. Bush announced the Mérida Initiative, a plan of law enforcement cooperation between the two countries.[121]

Foreign relations

Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and Presidents Barack Obama and Felipe Calderón at the 2009 North American Leaders' Summit in Guadalajara
The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of Mexico[122] and managed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[123] The principles of the foreign policy are constitutionally recognized in the Article 89, Section 10, which include: respect for international law andlegal equality of states, their sovereignty and independencenon-intervention in the domestic affairs of other countries, peaceful resolution of conflicts, and promotion of collective security through active participation in international organizations.[122] Since the 1930s, the Estrada Doctrine has served as a crucial complement to these principles.[124]
Mexico is one of the founding members of several international organizations, most notably the United Nations,[125] the Organization of American States,[126] the Organization of Ibero-American States,[127] the OPANAL[128] and the Rio Group.[129] In 2008, Mexico contributed over 40 million dollars to the United Nations regular budget.[130] In addition, it was the only Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development since it joined in 1994 until Chile gained full membership in 2010.[131][132]
Mexico is considered a regional power[133][134] hence its presence in major economic groups such as the G8+5 and the G-20. In addition, since the 1990s Mexico has sought a reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods[135] with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the Coffee Club.[136]
After the War of Independence, the relations of Mexico were focused primarily on the United States, its northern neighbor, largest trading partner,[137] and the most powerful actor in hemispheric and world affairs.[138] Mexico supported the Cuban government since its establishment in the early 1960s,[139] the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua during the late 1970s,[140] and leftist revolutionary groups in El Salvador during the 1980s.[141] Felipe Calderón's administration put a greater emphasis on relations with Latin America and the Caribbean.[142]


Main article: Mexican Armed Forces
The Mexican Armed Forces have two branches: the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force), and the Mexican Navy. The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics;[143][144] military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced naval dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies.[145]
In recent years, Mexico has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms,[146] missiles,[144] aircraft,[147] vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics,[143] defense systems,[143] armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels.[148] Since the 1990s, when the military escalated its role in the war on drugs, increasing importance has been placed on acquiring airborne surveillance platforms, aircraft, helicopters, digital war-fighting technologies,[143] urban warfare equipment and rapid troop transport.[149]
Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but abandoned this possibility with the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1968 and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.[150] In 1970, Mexico's national institute for nuclear research successfully refined weapons grade uranium[151][not in citation given] which is used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons but in April 2010, Mexico agreed to turn over its weapons grade uranium to the United States.[152][153]
Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts,[154] with the exception of World War II. However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution in order to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions, or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it.[155]

Administrative divisions

The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over the Federal District and otherterritories.
Each state has its own constitution, congress, and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.[156]
The Federal District is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state, and as such, has more limited local rule than the nation's states.[157]
The states are divided into municipalities, the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president (presidente municipal), elected by its residents by plurality.[158]


Main article: Economy of Mexico
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports.
The GDP per capita of Mexican States in USD, 2012.
Mexico has the 15th largest nominal GDP and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity. GDP annual average growth for the period of 1995–2002 was 5.1%.[78] Mexico's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in purchasing power parity(PPP) was estimated at US $2.2602 trillion in 2015, and $1.3673 trillion in nominal exchange rates.[159] Mexico's GDP in PPP per capita was US $18,714.05. The World Bank reported in 2009 that the country's Gross National Income in market exchange rates was the second highest in Latin America, after Brazil at US $1,830.392 billion,[160] which lead to the highest income per capita in the region at $14,400.[161] Mexico is now firmly established as an upper middle-income country. After the slowdown of 2001 the country has recovered and has grown 4.2, 3.0 and 4.8 percent in 2004, 2005 and 2006,[162] even though it is considered to be well below Mexico's potential growth.[163] Furthermore, after the 2008-2009 recession, the economy grew an average of 3.32 percent per year from 2010 to 2014.
From the late 1990s onwards, the majority of the population has been part of the growing middle class.[164] But from 2004 to 2008 the portion of the population who received less than half of the median income has risen from 17% to 21% and the absolute levels of poverty rose from 2006 to 2010, with a rise in persons living in extreme or moderate poverty rising from 35 to 46% (52 million persons).[110][165] This is also reflected by the fact that infant mortality in Mexico is three times higher than the average among OECD nations, and the literacy levels are in the median range of OECD nations. Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs, by 2050 Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world.[166]
Among the OECD countries, Mexico has the second highest degree of economic disparity between the extremely poor and extremely rich, after Chile – although it has been falling over the last decade, being only one of few countries in which this is the case.[167] The bottom ten percent in the income hierarchy disposes of 1.36% of the country's resources, whereas the upper ten percent dispose of almost 36%. OECD also notes that Mexico's budgeted expenses for poverty alleviation and social development is only about a third of the OECD average – both in absolute and relative numbers.[110]
According to a 2008 UN report the average income in a typical urbanized area of Mexico was $26,654, while the average income in rural areas just miles away was only $8,403.[168] Daily minimum wages are set annually by law and determined by zone; $67.29 Mexican pesos ($5.13 USD) in Zone A and $63.77 Mexican pesos ($4.86 USD) in Zone B.[169]
A tablet PC and touch screen computer / television made by MexicanMeebox.
The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade. Mexico has the sixth largest electronics industry in the world after ChinaUnited StatesJapanSouth Korea, and Taiwan. Mexico is the second largest exporter of electronics to the United States where it exported $71.4 billion worth of electronics in 2011.[170] The Mexican electronics industry is dominated by the manufacture and OEM design of televisions, displays, computers, mobile phones, circuit boards, semiconductors, electronic appliances, communications equipment and LCD modules. The Mexican electronics industry grew 20% between 2010 and 2011, up from its constant growth rate of 17% between 2003 and 2009.[170]Currently electronics represent 30% of Mexico's exports.[170]
Mexico produces the most automobiles of any North American nation.[171] The industry produces technologically complex components and engages in some research and development activities.[172] The "Big Three" (General MotorsFord andChrysler) have been operating in Mexico since the 1930s, while Volkswagen and Nissan built their plants in the 1960s.[173] InPuebla alone, 70 industrial part-makers cluster around Volkswagen.[172] In the 2010s expansion of the sector was surging. In 2014 alone, more than $10 billion in investment was committed. Kia Motors in August 2014 announced plans for a $1 billion factory in Nuevo León. At the time Mercedes-Benz and Nissan were already building a $1.4 billion plant near Puebla, whileBMW was planning a $1-billion assembly plant in San Luis Potosí. Additionally, Audi began building a $1.3 billion factory near Puebla in 2013.[174]
The domestic car industry is represented by DINA S.A., which has built buses and trucks since 1962,[175] and the new Mastretta company that builds the high-performance Mastretta MXT sports car.[176] In 2006, trade with the United States and Canada accounted for almost 50% of Mexico's exports and 45% of its imports.[12] During the first three quarters of 2010, the United States had a $46.0 billion trade deficitwith Mexico.[177] In August 2010 Mexico surpassed France to became the 9th largest holder of US debt.[178] The commercial and financial dependence on the US is a cause for concern.[179]
The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0.2% of Mexico's GDP[180] which was equal to US$20 billion per year in 2004 and is the tenth largest source of foreign income after oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services.[181] According to Mexico's central bank, remittances in 2008 amounted to $25bn.[182]
Major players in the broadcasting industry are Televisa, the largest Spanish media company in the Spanish-speaking world,[183] and TV Azteca.


The telecommunications industry is mostly dominated by Telmex (Teléfonos de México), privatized in 1990. By 2006, Telmex had expanded its operations to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay and the United States. Other players in the domestic industry are Axtel and Maxcom. Because of Mexican orography, providing a landline telephone service at remote mountainous areas is expensive, and the penetration of line-phones per capita is low compared to other Latin American countries, at 40 percent; however, 82% of Mexicans over the age of 14 own a mobile phone. Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, and the total number of mobile lines is almost two times that of landlines, with an estimation of 63 million lines.[184] The telecommunication industry is regulated by the government through Cofetel (Comisión Federal de Telecomunicaciones).
The Mexican satellite system is domestic and operates 120 earth stations. There is also extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.[184] Mexican satellites are operated by Satélites Mexicanos (Satmex), a private company, leader in Latin America and servicing both North and South America.[185] It offers broadcast, telephone and telecommunication services to 37 countries in the Americas, from Canada to Argentina. Through business partnerships Satmex provides high-speed connectivity to ISPs and Digital Broadcast Services.[186] Satmex maintains its own satellite fleet with most of the fleet being designed and built in Mexico.
The use of radio, television, and Internet in Mexico is prevalent.[187] There are approximately 1,410 radio broadcast stations and 236 television stations (excluding repeaters).[184]Major players in the broadcasting industry are Televisa—the largest media company in the Spanish-speaking world[183]—and TV Azteca.


Pemex oil platform.
Energy production in Mexico is managed by state-owned companies: the Federal Commission of Electricity and Pemex.
Pemex, the public company in charge of exploration, extraction, transportation and marketing of crude oil and natural gas, as well as the refining and distribution of petroleum products and petrochemicals, is one of the largest companies in the world by revenue, making US $86 billion in sales a year.[188][189][190] Mexico is the sixth-largest oil producer in the world, with 3.7 million barrels per day.[191] In 1980 oil exports accounted for 61.6% of total exports; by 2000 it was only 7.3%.[172]
The largest hydro plant in Mexico is the 2,400 MW Manuel Moreno Torres Dam in Chicoasén, Chiapas, in the Grijalva River. This is the world's fourth most productive hydroelectric plant.[192]
Mexico is the country with the world's third largest solar potential.[193] The country's gross solar potential is estimated at 5kWh/m2 daily, which corresponds to 50 times national electricity generation.[194] Currently, there is over 1 million square meters of solar thermal panels[195] installed in Mexico, while in 2005, there were 115,000 square meters of solar PV (photo-voltaic). It is expected that in 2012 there will be 1,8 million square meters of installed solar thermal panels.[195]
The project named SEGH-CFE 1, located in Puerto Libertad, Sonora, Northwest of Mexico, will have capacity of 46.8 MW from an array of 187,200 solar panels when complete in 2013.[196] All of the electricity will be sold directly to the CFE and absorbed into the utility’s transmission system for distribution throughout their existing network. At an installed capacity of 46.8 MWp, when complete in 2013, the project will be the first utility scale project of its kind in Mexico and the largest solar project of any kind in Latin America.

Science and technology

The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in 1910,[197] and the university become one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico.[198] UNAM provides world class education in science, medicine, and engineering.[199] Many scientific institutes and new institutes of higher learning, such as National Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1936),[200] were established during the first half of the 20th century. Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from 1929 to 1973.[201] In 1959, theMexican Academy of Sciences was created to coordinate scientific efforts between academics.
In 1995, the Mexican chemist Mario J. Molina shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Paul J. Crutzen and F. Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.[202] Molina, an alumnus of UNAM, became the first Mexican citizen to win the Nobel Prize in science.[203]
In recent years, the largest scientific project being developed in Mexico was the construction of the Large Millimeter Telescope (Gran Telescopio Milimétrico, GMT), the world's largest and most sensitive single-aperture telescope in its frequency range.[204] It was designed to observe regions of space obscured by stellar dust.


Main article: Tourism in Mexico
The Chapultepec Castle is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Mexico
Mexico has been traditionally among the most visited countries in the world according to the World Tourism Organization and it is the most visited country in the Americas, after the United States. The most notable attractions are the Meso-American ruins, cultural festivals, colonial cities, nature reserves and the beach resorts. The nation's temperate climate and unique culture – a fusion of the European and the Meso-American – make Mexico an attractive destination. The peak tourism seasons in the country are during December and the mid-Summer, with brief surges during the week before Easter and Spring break, when many of the beach resort sites become popular destinations for college students from the United States.
Mexico has the 23rd highest income from tourism in the world, and the highest in Latin America.[205] The vast majority of tourists come to Mexico from the United States and Canada followed by Europe and Asia. A smaller number also come from other Latin American countries.[206] In the 2011 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index report, Mexico was ranked 43rd in the world, which was 4th in the Americas .[207]
The coastlines of Mexico harbor many stretches of beaches that are frequented by sun bathers and other visitors. On the Yucatán peninsula, one of the most popular beach destinations is the resort town of Cancún, especially among university students during spring break. Just offshore is the beach island ofIsla Mujeres, and to the east is the Isla Holbox. To the south of Cancun is the coastal strip called Riviera Maya which includes the beach town of Playa del Carmen and the ecological parks of Xcaret and Xel-Há. A day trip to the south of Cancún is the historic port of Tulum. In addition to its beaches, the town of Tulum is notable for its cliff-side Mayanruins.
El Tajín is one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica
On the Pacific coast is the notable tourist destination of Acapulco. Once the destination for the rich and famous, the beaches have become crowded and the shores are now home to many multi-story hotels and vendors. Acapulco is home to renowned cliff divers: trained divers who leap from the side of a vertical cliff into the surf below.
At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas, a town noted for its beaches and marlinfishing.[208] Further north along the Sea of Cortés is the Bahía de La Concepción, another beach town known for its sports fishing. Closer to the United States border is the weekend draw of San Felipe, Baja California.


Main article: Transportation in Mexico
Baluarte Bridge is the longestcable-stayed bridge in Latin America, the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world and the highest bridge in theAmericas.
The roadway network in Mexico is extensive and all areas in the country are covered by it.[209] The roadway network in Mexico has an extent of 366,095 km (227,481 mi),[210] of which 116,802 km (72,577 mi) are paved,[210] making it the largest paved-roadway network inLatin America.[211] Of these, 10,474 km (6,508 mi) are multi-lane expressways: 9,544 km (5,930 mi) are four-lane highways and the rest have 6 or more lanes.[210]
Mexico was one of the first Latin American countries to promote railway development,[106] and the network covers 30,952 km (19,233 mi).[187] The Secretary of Communications and Transport of Mexico proposed a high-speed rail link that will transport its passengers from Mexico City to GuadalajaraJalisco.[212][213] The train, which will travel at 300 kilometers per hour,[214] will allow passengers to travel from Mexico City to Guadalajara in just 2 hours.[214] The whole project was projected to cost 240 billion pesos, or about 25 billion US$[212] and is being paid for jointly by the Mexican government and the local private sector including the wealthiest man in the world, Mexico's billionaire business tycoon Carlos Slim.[215] The government of the state of Yucatán is also funding the construction of a high speed line connecting the cities of Cozumel to Mérida and Chichen Itza and Cancún.[216]
Mexico has 233 airports with paved runways; of these, 35 carry 97% of the passenger traffic.[187] The Mexico City International Airportremains the largest in Latin America and the 44th largest in the world[217] transporting 21 million passengers a year.[218]

Water supply and sanitation

Among the achievements is a significant increase in access to piped water supply in urban areas (88% to 93%) as well as in rural areas (50% to 74%) between 1990 and 2010. Additionally, a strong nationwide increase in access to improved sanitation (64% to 85%) was observed in the same period. Other achievements include the existence of a functioning national system to finance water and sanitation infrastructure with a National Water Commission as its apex institution; and the existence of a few well-performing utilities such as Aguas y Drenaje de Monterrey.
The challenges include water scarcity in the northern and central parts of the country; inadequate water service quality (drinking water quality; 55% of Mexicans receiving water only intermittently according to results of the 2000 census); poor technical and commercial efficiency of most utilities (with an average level of Non-revenue_water of 51% in 2003); an insufficient share of wastewater receiving treatment (36% in 2006); and still inadequate access in rural areas. In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large investment program to improve wastewater treatment.


Main article: Demographics of Mexico
The recently conducted 2010 Census[219] showed a population of 112,336,538, making it the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.[220] Between 2005 and 2010, the Mexican population grew at an average of 1.70% per year, up from 1.16% per year between 2000 and 2005.
Mexico is ethnically diverse; the various indigenous peoples and European immigrants are united under a single national identity.[221] The core part of Mexican national identity is formed on the basis of a synthesis of European culture with Indigenous cultures in a process known as mestizaje, alluding to the mixed biological origins of the majority of Mexicans.[221][222] Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje.[223]
Since the mestizo identity promoted by the government is more of a cultural identity than a biological one it has achieved a strong influence in the country, with a good number of biologically white people identifying with it, leading to being considered mestizos in Mexico's demographic investigations and censuses due the ethnic criteria having its base on cultural traits rather than biological ones.[224] A similar situation occurs regarding the distinctions between indigenous peoples and mestizos: while the term mestizo is sometimes used in English with the meaning of a person with mixed indigenous and European blood, this usage does not conform to the Mexican social reality where a person of pure indigenous genetic heritage would be considered Mestizo either by rejecting his indigenous culture or by not speaking an indigenous language,[225] and a person with a very low percentage of indigenous genetic heritage would be considered fully indigenous either by speaking an indigenous language or by identifying with a particular indigenous cultural heritage.[226][227][228]
The term mestizo itself, albeit often used in literature about Mexican social identities, carries a variety of socio-cultural, economic, racial and biological meanings. For this reason it has been deemed too imprecise to be used for ethnic classification and has been abandoned in Mexican censuses.[106][229]
The category of indígena (indigenous) can be defined narrowly according to linguistic criteria including only speakers of one of Mexico's 62 indigenous languages or people who self-identify as having an indigenous cultural background. According to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, in 2005 there were 10.1 million Mexicans who spoke an indigenous language and claimed indigenous heritage, representing 9.8% of the total population.[230] Another source, the 2010 census, found that 14.86% of the population self-identified as indigenous.[231]
Mexico is home to the largest number of U.S. citizens abroad (estimated at one million in 1999).[232] The Argentine community is considered to be the second-largest foreign community in the country (estimated somewhere between 30,000 and 150,000).[233][234] Mexico also has a large Lebanese community, now numbering around 400,000.[235] In October 2008, Mexico agreed to deport Cubans using the country as an entry point to the US.[236] Large numbers of Central American migrants who have crossed Guatemala's western border into Mexico are deported every year.[237][238] Small numbers of illegal immigrants come from Ecuador, Cuba, China, South Africa, and Pakistan.[239] Mexico is the largest source of immigration to the United States.[240] 11.6 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican as of 2014.[241]


President Porfirio Diaz was of Mestizo descent
A large majority of Mexicans have been classified as "Mestizos", meaning in modern Mexican usage that they identify fully neither with any indigenous culture nor with a particular non-Mexican heritage, but rather identify as having cultural traits and heritage incorporating elements from indigenous and European traditions. By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje. Mexican politicians and reformers such asJosé Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje.[242][243] Cultural policies in early post-revolutionary Mexico were paternalistic towards the indigenous people, with efforts designed to "help" indigenous peoples achieve the same level of progress as the rest of society, eventually assimilating indigenous peoples completely to Mestizo Mexican culture, working toward the goal of eventually solving the "Indian problem" by transforming indigenous communities into mestizo communities.[244]
A 2014 publication summarizing population genetics research in Mexico, which have included three nationwide surveys and several region-specific surveys, found that in the studies done to date, counting only studies that looked at the ancestry of both parents: "Amerindian ancestry is most prevalent (51% to 56%) in the three general estimates, followed by European ancestry (40% to 45%); the African share represents only 2% to 5%.... In Mexico City, the European contribution was estimated as 21% to 32% in six of the seven reports, with the anomalous value of 57% obtained in a single sample of 19 subjects. European ancestry is most prevalent in the north (Chihuahua, 50%; Sonora, 62%; Nuevo León, 55%), but in a recent sample from Nuevo León and elsewhere in the country, Amerindian ancestry is dominant."[245]
The term "Mestizo" is not in wide use in Mexican society today and has been dropped as a category in population censuses; it is, however, still used in social and cultural studies when referring to the non-indigenous part of the Mexican population. The word has somewhat pejorative connotations and most of the Mexican citizens who would be defined as mestizos in the sociological literature would probably self-identify primarily as Mexicans. In the Yucatán peninsula the word Mestizo is even used about Maya-speaking populations living in traditional communities, because during the caste war of the late 19th century those Maya who did not join the rebellion were classified as mestizos.[246] In Chiapas the word "Ladino" is used instead of mestizo.[247]

Indigenous peoples

Two young Mixtec people dancing ajarabe.
According to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, or CDI in Spanish) and the INEGI (official census institute), there are 15.7 million indigenous people in Mexico,[248] of many different ethnic groups,[230] which constitute 14.9% of the population in the country. The number of indigenous Mexicans is judged using the political criteria found in the 2nd article of the Mexican constitution. The Mexican census does not report racial-ethnicity but only the cultural-ethnicity of indigenous communities that preserve their indigenous languages, traditions, beliefs, and cultures. The absolute indigenous population is growing, but at a slower rate than the rest of the population so that the percentage of indigenous peoples is nonetheless falling.[249]
In 2011 a large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans revealed 85 to 90% of mtDNA lineages of Native American origin, with the remainder having European (5–7%) or African ancestry (3–5%). Thus the observed frequency of Native American mtDNA in Mexican/Mexican Americans is higher than was expected on the basis of autosomal estimates of Native American admixture for these populations i.e. ~ 30–46%[250]
The category of "indigena" (indigenous) can be defined narrowly according to linguistic criteria including only persons that speak one of Mexico's 62 indigenous languages, this is the categorization used by the National Mexican Institute of Statistics. It can also be defined broadly to include all persons who selfidentify as having an indigenous cultural background, whether or not they speak the language of the indigenous group they identify with. This means that the percentage of the Mexican population defined as "indigenous" varies according to the definition applied, cultural activists have referred to the usage of the narrow definition of the term for census purposes as "statistical genocide".[251][252]
The majority of the indigenous population is concentrated in the central and southern states. These states are generally the least developed, and the majority of the indigenous population live in rural areas. Some indigenous communities have a degree of autonomy under the legislation of "usos y costumbres", which allows them to regulate some internal issues under customary law.
According to the CDI, the states with the greatest proportion of indigenous residents are:[253] Yucatán, at 59%, Quintana Roo 39% and Campeche 27%, chiefly MayaOaxaca with 48% of the population, the most numerous groups being the Mixtec and Zapotec peoplesChiapas at 28%, the majority being Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya; Hidalgo 24%, the majority being OtomiPuebla 19%, and Guerrero 17%, mostly Nahua people and the states of San Luis Potosí and Veracruz both home to a population that is 15% indigenous, mostly from the Totonac, Nahua and Teenek (Huastec) groups.[254]
All of the indices of social development for the indigenous population are considerably lower than the national average. In all states indigenous people have higher infant mortality, in some states almost double of the non-indigenous populations. Literacy rates are also much lower, with 27% of indigenous children between 6 and 14 being illiterate compared to a national average of 12%. The indigenous population participate in the workforce longer than the national average, starting earlier and continuing longer. However, 55% of the indigenous population receive less than a minimum salary, compared to 20% for the national average. Many practice subsistence agriculture and receive no salaries. Indigenous people also have less access to health care and a lower quality of housing.[254]

Mexicans of European descent

Girls from Zapopan, in the state ofJalisco. fair-skinned Mexicans arecolloquially known as 'güeros' (fem.güeras)
European Mexicans are Mexican citizens of European descent.[255] Despite that Mexico does not have a racial census, estimations from different international organizations regarding the number of this ethnic group within the country's population range from 9% according toThe World Factbook, to as high as 20% (approximately one-fifth) according to Encyclopædia Britannica.[citation needed] Another group in Mexico, the "mestizos", also include people with varying amounts of European ancestry, with some having a European admixture higher than 90%.[256] Although it must be considered that the criteria to define mestizo might be different from study to study, and that in Mexico a good number of white people has been historically classified as mestizos, because the Mexican government defines ethnicity on cultural standards as opposed to racial ones.[257]
Genetic studies in Mexico show a varying degree of European admixture in Mestizos. Genetic variation is largely based upon where in the country an individual is from. This is true because Native Mexicans are concentrated in the South and Central part of the country, whilst the "white" population is concentrated in the north.[258][259]).
In another study, Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine issued a report on a genomic study of mestizos from the states of Guerrero, Sonora, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas, and Guanajuato. The study found that the Mestizo population of these Mexican states were on average 55% of indigenous ancestry followed by 41.8% of European, 1.8% of African, and 1.2% of East Asian ancestry. The study also noted that whereas Mestizo individuals from the southern state of Guerrero showed on average 66% of indigenous ancestry, those from the northern state of Sonora displayed about 61.6% European ancestry. The study found that there was an increase in indigenous ancestry as one traveled towards to the Southern states in Mexico, while the indigenous ancestry declined as one traveled to the Northern states in the country, such as Sonora.[citation needed]
Europeans began arriving in Mexico with the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, with the descendents of the conquistadors, along with new arrivals from Spain formed an elite but were a small minority of the population. Most white immigrants however intermixed with the Mestizo and indigenous populations.[260]
While most of European migration into Mexico was Spanish during the colonial period, in the 19th and 20th centuries European and European derived populations from North andSouth America did immigrate to the country. However, at its height, the total immigrant population in Mexico never exceeded ten percent of the total.[255] Many of these immigrants came with money to invest and/or ties to allow them to become prominent in business and other aspects of Mexican society. However, due to government restrictions many of them left the country in the early 20th century.
Mexico's northern regions have the greatest European population and admixture. In the northwest, the majority of the relatively small indigenous communities remain isolated from the rest of the population, and as for the northeast, the indigenous population was eliminated by early European and Mestizo settlers, becoming the region with the highest proportion of whites during the Spanish colonial period. However, recent immigrants from southern Mexico have been changing, to some degree, its demographic trends.[261]According to the last racial census Mexico took, which was in 1921,[262] there were no states in Mexico that had a majority "white" population, and in virtually every state in the north Mestizos were the largest population group.[262] The only state where "whites" outnumbered Mestizos was Sonora, in which "whites" composed 41.85% of the population, and Mestizos 40.38%.[262]

Population genetics

An 18th-century casta painting show an indigenous woman with her Spanish husband and their Mestizo child.
A 2012 study published by the Journal of Human Genetics found the ancestry of the Mexican mestizo population to be predominately European (65%), followed by Native American (31%) and African (4%). The European ancestry was prevalent in the north and west (66.7–95%) and Native American ancestry increased in the center and southeast (37–50%), the African ancestry was low and relatively homogeneous (0–8.8%).[258] The states that participated in this study were Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Veracruz and Yucatán.[263]
The largest amount of chromosomes found were identified as belonging to the haplogroups from Western EuropeEast Europe and EuroasiaSiberia and the Americas and Northern Europe with relatively smaller traces of haplogroups fromCentral AsiaSouth-east AsiaSouth-central AsiaWestern AsiaThe CaucasusNorth AfricaNear EastEast AsiaNorth-east AsiaSouth-west Asia and The Middle East.[264]
A study by the National Institute of Genomic Medicine, Mexico reported that Mestizo Mexicans are 58.96% European, 31.05% "Asian" (Amerindian), and 10.03% African. Sonora shows the highest European contribution (70.63%) and Guerrero the lowest (51.98%) which also has the highest Asian contribution (37.17%). African contribution ranges from 2.8% in Sonora to 11.13% in Veracruz. 80% of the Mexican population was classed as mestizo (defined as "being racially mixed in some degree").[265]
In May 2009, Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine issued a report on a genomic study of 300 mestizos from the states of Guerrero, Sonora, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas, and Guanajuato. The study found that the Mestizo population of these Mexican states were on average 55% of indigenous ancestry followed by 41.8% of European, 1.8% of African, and 1.2% of East Asian ancestry.[266]
The study also noted that whereas Mestizo individuals from the southern state of Guerrero showed on average 66% of indigenous ancestry, those from the northern state of Sonora displayed about 61.6% European ancestry. The study found that there was an increase in indigenous ancestry as one traveled towards to the Southern states in Mexico, while the indigenous ancestry declined as one traveled to the Northern states in the country, such as Sonora.[266]


Main article: Languages of Mexico
A map showing the distribution of speakers of Mexico's main indigenous languages
The country has the largest Spanish-speaking population in the world with almost a third of all Spanish native speakers.[220][267]
Mexico is home to a large number of indigenous languages, spoken by some 5.4% of the population – 1.2% of the population are monolingual speakers of an indigenous language.[268] The indigenous languages with most speakers are Nahuatl, spoken by approximately 1.45 million people,[269] Yukatek Maya spoken by some 750,000 people and theMixtec[270] and Zapotec languages[271] each spoken by more than 400,000 people.
The National Institute of Indigenous Languages INALI recognizes 68 linguistic groups and some 364 different specific varieties of indigenous languages.[272] Since the promulgation of the Law of Indigenous Linguistic Rights in 2003, these languages have had status as national languages, with equal validity with Spanish in all the areas and contexts in which they are spoken.[273]
In addition to the indigenous languages, other minority languages are spoken by immigrant populations, such as the 80,000 German-speaking Mennonites in Mexico,[274] and 5,000 the Chipilo dialect of the Venetian language spoken inChipiloPuebla.

Urban areas

The Mexico City metropolitan area is home to over 20 million people.
The top 10 urban areas in Mexico.
RankMetropolitan AreaState2010 Pop.2000 Pop.Change
1Greater Mexico CityDFMexicoHidalgo20,137,15218,396,677+9.46%
2Greater GuadalajaraJalisco4,434,2523,699,136+19.87%
3Greater MonterreyNuevo León4,106,0543,374,361+21.68%
4Greater PueblaPueblaTlaxcala2,728,7902,220,533+22.89%
5Greater TolucaMexico1,936,1261,451,801+33.36%
6Greater TijuanaBaja California1,751,3021,352,035+29.53%
7Greater LeónGuanajuato1,609,7171,269,179+26.83%
8Greater JuárezChihuahua1,495,0941,218,817+22.67%
9Greater TorreónCoahuilaDurango1,275,9931,007,291+26.68%
10Greater QuerétaroQuerétaro1,097,028816,481+34.36%


See also: Religion in Mexico
Religion in Mexico (2010 census)[275]
Roman Catholicism
Other Christian
Other Religion
No religion
The 2010 census by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (National Institute of Statistics and Geography) gave Roman Catholicism as the main religion, with 83% of the population, while 10% (10,924,103) belong to other Christian denominations, including Evangelicals (5%); Pentecostals (1.6%); other Protestant or Reformed (0.7%); Jehovah's Witnesses (1.4%); Seventh-day Adventists (0.6%); and members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (0.3%).[275] 172,891 (or less than 0.2% of the total) belonged to other, non-Christian religions; 4.7% declared having no religion; 2.7% were unspecified.[275]
The 92,924,489[275] Catholics of Mexico constitute in absolute terms the second largest Catholic community in the world, afterBrazil's.[276] 47% percent of them attend church services weekly.[277] The feast day of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, is celebrated on December 12 and is regarded by many Mexicans as the most important religious holiday of their country.[278]
The 2010 census reported 314,932 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[275] though the church in 2009 claimed to have over one million registered members.[279] About 25% of registered members attend a weekly sacrament service although this can fluctuate up and down.[280]
The presence of Jews in Mexico dates back to 1521, when Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs, accompanied by several Conversos.[281] According to the 2010 census, there are 67,476 Jews in Mexico.[275] Islam in Mexico is practiced by a small population in the city of Torreón, Coahuila, and there are an estimated 300 Muslims in the San Cristóbal de las Casas area in Chiapas.[282][283] In the 2010 census 18,185 Mexicans reported belonging to an Eastern religion,[275] a category which includes a tiny Buddhist population.


Further information: Women in Mexico
Until the twentieth century, Mexico was an overwhelmingly rural country, with rural women's status defined within the context of the family and local community. With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire, cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages.Roman Catholicism in Mexico has shaped societal attitudes about women's social role, emphasizing the role of women as nurturers of the family, with the Virgin Mary as a model.Marianismo has been an ideal, with women's role as being within the family under the authority of men. In the twentieth century, Mexican women made great strides toward towards a more equal legal and social status. In 1953 women in Mexico were granted the vote in national elections.
Mexican women face discrimination and at times harassment from the machismo population. Although women in Mexico are making big advancements they are faced with the traditional expectations of being the head of the household. Researcher Margarita Valdés noted that while there are few inequalities enforced by law or policy in Mexico, there are gender inequalities perpetuated by social structures and Mexican cultural expectations that limit the capabilities of Mexican women.[284]
As of 2014, Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world [285] The prevalence of domestic violence against women in Mexican marital relationships varies at between 30 and 60 percent of relationships.[286] The remains of the victims were frequently mutilated.[287] According to a 1997 study, domestic abuse in Mexican culture "is embedded in gender and marital relations fostered in Mexican women's dependence on their spouses for subsistence and for self-esteem, sustained by ideologies of romantic love, by family structure and residential arrangements."[288] The perpetrators are often the boyfriend, father-in-law, ex-husbands or husbands but only 1.6% of the murder cases led to an arrest and sentencing.[287]


Main article: Culture of Mexico
Frida Kahlo with Diego Rivera in 1932.
Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain, imparted during Spain's 300-year colonization of Mexico. Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed.
The Porfirian era (el Porfiriato), in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace. After four decades of civil unrest and war, Mexico saw the development of philosophy and the arts, promoted by President Díaz himself. Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution, cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje, of which the indigenous (i.e. Amerindian) element is the core. In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in his publication La Raza Cósmica (The Cosmic Race) (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races (thus extending the definition of themestizo) not only biologically but culturally as well.[289]


Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. The most well known prehispanic poet isNezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Outstanding colonial writers and poets include Juan Ruiz de Alarcón and Juana Inés de la Cruz.
Other writers include Alfonso ReyesJosé Joaquín Fernández de LizardiIgnacio Manuel AltamiranoCarlos FuentesOctavio Paz (Nobel Laureate), Renato LeducCarlos MonsiváisElena PoniatowskaMariano Azuela ("Los de abajo") and Juan Rulfo ("Pedro Páramo"). Bruno Traven wrote "Canasta de cuentos mexicanos" (Mexican tales basket), "El tesoro de la Sierra Madre" (Treasure of the Sierra Madre).

Visual arts

See also: Mexican art
The Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City.
Post-revolutionary art in Mexico had its expression in the works of renowned artists such as David Alfaro SiqueirosFederico Cantú GarzaFrida KahloJuan O'GormanJosé Clemente OrozcoDiego Rivera, and Rufino Tamayo. Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin.[290] Some of Rivera's murals are displayed at the Mexican National Palace and the Palace of Fine Arts.
Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt.[citation needed] Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain.[citation needed] Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style.


Main article: Cinema of Mexico
Mexican films from the Golden Age in the 1940s and 1950s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years. Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Maria Candelaria (1944) by Emilio Fernández, was one of the first films awarded a Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1946, the first time the event was held after World War II. The famous Spanish-born director Luis Buñuel realized in Mexico, between 1947 to 1965 some of him master pieces like Los Olvidados (1949), Viridiana (1961) and El angel exterminador (1963). Famous actors and actresses from this period include María FélixPedro InfanteDolores del RíoJorge Negrete and the comedian Cantinflas.
More recently, films such as Como agua para chocolate (1992), Cronos (1993), Y tu mamá también (2001), and Pan's Labyrinth (2006) have been successful in creating universal stories about contemporary subjects, and were internationally recognised, as in the prestigious Cannes Film Festival. Mexican directors Alejandro González Iñárritu (Amores perrosBabel), Alfonso Cuarón (Children of MenHarry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban), Guillermo del ToroCarlos Carrera (The Crime of Father Amaro), and screenwriterGuillermo Arriaga are some of the most known present-day film makers.


Two of the major television networks based in Mexico are Televisa and TV Azteca. Televisa is also the largest producer of Spanish-language content in the world and also the world's largest Spanish-language media network.[291] Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The telenovelas are very traditional in Mexico and are translated to many languages and seen all over the world with renowned names like Verónica CastroLucía Méndez,Lucero, and Thalía.


Main article: Music of Mexico
Mariachi at the Festival del Mariachi, Charrería y Tequila in San Juan de los Lagos, Mexico.
Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Traditional music includesmariachibandanorteñoranchera and corridos; on an everyday basis most Mexicans listen to contemporary music such aspop, rock, etc. in both English and Spanish. Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain.
Some well-known Mexican singers are ThalíaLynda ThomasLuis MiguelJuan GabrielAlejandro FernándezJulieta VenegasJose Jose and Paulina Rubio. Mexican singers of traditional music are: Lila DownsSusana HarpJaramarGEO Meneses and Alejandra Robles. Popular groups are Café TacubaCaifanesMolotov and Maná, among others. Since the early years of the 2000s (decade), Mexican rock has seen widespread growth both domestically and internationally.[citation needed]
According to the Sistema Nacional de Fomento Musical, there are between 120 and 140 youth orchestras affiliated to this federal agency from all federal states.[citation needed] Some states, through their state agencies in charge of culture and the arts—Ministry or Secretary or Institute or Council of Culture, or in some cases the Secretary of Education or the State University—sponsor the activities of a professional symphony orchestra or philharmonic crchestra so all citizens can have access to this artistic expression from the field of classical music. Mexico City is the most intense hub of this activity, hosting 12 professional orchestras sponsored by different agencies such as the National Institute of Fine Arts, the Secretary of Culture of the Federal District, The National University, the National Polytechnic Institute, a Delegación Política (Coyoacán) and private ventures.[citation needed]


Main article: Mexican cuisine
Tacos, Mexico's most well known national dish.
Mexican cuisine is known for its intense and varied flavors, colorful decoration, and variety of spices. Most of today's Mexican food is based on pre-Columbian traditions, including Aztec and Maya, combined with culinary trends introduced by Spanish colonists.
The conquistadores eventually combined their imported diet of rice, beef, pork, chicken, wine, garlic and onions with the native pre-Columbian food, including maize, tomato, vanillaavocadoguavapapayapineapplechili pepperbeanssquashsweet potato, peanut, and turkey.
Mexican food varies by region, because of local climate and geography and ethnic differences among the indigenous inhabitants and because these different populations were influenced by the Spaniards in varying degrees. The north of Mexico is known for its beef, goat and ostrich production and meat dishes, in particular the well-known Arrachera cut.
Central Mexico's cuisine is largely made up of influences from the rest of the country, but also has its authentics, such asbarbacoapozolemenudotamales, and carnitas.
Southeastern Mexico, on the other hand, is known for its spicy vegetable and chicken-based dishes. The cuisine of Southeastern Mexico also has quite a bit of Caribbean influence, given its geographical location. Veal is common in theYucatan. Seafood is commonly prepared in the states that border the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, the latter having a famous reputation for its fish dishes, in particular à la veracruzana.
In modern times, other cuisines of the world have become very popular in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made with a variety of sauces based on mango or tamarind, and very often served with serrano-chili-blended soy sauce, or complemented with vinegar, habanero and chipotle peppers
The most internationally recognized dishes include chocolate, tacosquesadillasenchiladasburritostamales and mole among others. Regional dishes include mole poblano,chiles en nogada and chalupas from Pueblacabrito and machaca from Monterrey, cochinita pibil from YucatánTlayudas from Oaxaca, as well as barbacoachilaquiles,milanesas, and many others.


Main article: Sport in Mexico
The Estadio Azteca (Aztec Stadium), the sixth largest stadium in the world.
Mexico City hosted the XIX Olympic Games in 1968, making it the first Latin American city to do so.[292] The country has also hosted the FIFA World Cup twice, in 1970 and 1986.[293]
Mexico's most popular sport is association football (soccer). It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico byCornish miners at the end of the 19th century. By 1902 a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence.[294][295] Mexico's top clubs are América with 12 championships, Guadalajara with 11, and Toluca with 10.[296] Antonio Carbajal was the first player to appear in five World Cups,[297] and Hugo Sánchez was named best CONCACAF player of the 20th century by IFFHS.[298]
The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol. While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles.[citation needed] Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela.
In 2013, Mexico's basketball team won the Americas Basketball Championship and qualified for the 2014 Basketball World Cup where it reached the playoffs. Because of these achievements the country earned the hosting rights for the 2015 FIBA Americas Championship.[299]
Bullfighting is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. Plaza México in Mexico City, is the largest bullring in the world, which seats 55,000 people. Professional wrestling (or Lucha libre in Spanish) is a major crowd draw with national promotions such as AAA, LLL, CMLL and others.
Mexico is an international power in professional boxing (at the amateur level, several Olympic boxing medals have also been won by Mexico). Vicente SaldivarRubén Olivares,Salvador SánchezJulio César ChávezRicardo Lopez and Erik Morales are but a few Mexican fighters who have been ranked among the best of all time.[300]
Notable Mexican athletes include golfer Lorena Ochoa, who was ranked first in the LPGA world rankings prior to her retirement,[301] Ana Guevara, former world champion of the 400 metres (1,300 ft) and Olympic subchampion in Athens 2004, and Fernando Platas, a numerous Olympic medal winning diver.


Main article: Health care in Mexico
Since the early 1990s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.[302] Mexico's medical infrastructure is highly rated for the most part and is usually excellent in major cities,[303][304] but rural communities still lack equipment for advanced medical procedures, forcing patients in those locations to travel to the closest urban areas to get specialized medical care.[106]Social determinants of health can be used to evaluate the state of health in Mexico.
State-funded institutions such as Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) and the Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers (ISSSTE) play a major role in health and social security. Private health services are also very important and account for 13% of all medical units in the country.[305]
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara, have signed agreements with the U.S. to receive and train American students in Medicine. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.[303]


Main article: Education in Mexico
In 2004, the literacy rate was at 97%[306] for youth under the age of 14 and 91% for people over 15,[307] placing Mexico at the 24th place in the world rank according to UNESCO.[308]
The National Autonomous University of Mexico ranks 190th place in the Top 200 World University Ranking published by The Times Higher Education Supplement in 2009.[309] Private business schools also stand out in international rankings. IPADE and EGADE, the business schools of Universidad Panamericana and of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education respectively, were ranked in the top 10 in a survey conducted by The Wall Street Journal among recruiters outside the United States.[310]

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